The listings of research below represents a compilation of scientific articles found on the topic, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. This compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use of any herb listed.
Akthar, M. S., Degaga, B., & Azam, T. (2014). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from medicinal plants against the pathogenic microorganisms: a review. Issues in Biological Sciences and Pharmaceutical Research, 2(1), 1-7.
Clove, cumin, origanum, and anise essential oils may be a potential source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. From: Raeisi, M., Hashemi, M., Aminzare, M., Sadeghi, M., Jahani, T., Keshavarzi, H., … & Tepe, B. (2016). Comparative Evaluation of Phytochemical, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Properties from the Essential Oils of Four Commonly Consuming Plants in Iran. Journal of food quality and hazards control, 3(3), 107-113.
Origanum vulgare, Melissa officinalis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis, and Hyssopus officinalis were test and O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, and the highest rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans were pathogens affected by all six extracts. From: Benedec, D., Hanganu, D., Oniga, I., Tiperciuc, B., Olah, N. K., Raita, O., … & Vlase, L. (2015). Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci, 28(6), 2297-2303.
A total of 146 organisms were tested against O. basilicum, and the results showed a lack of antifungal activities, but anticandidal and antibacterial effects. From: Adigüzel, A., Güllüce, M., ŞENGÜL, M., Öğütcü, H., ŞAHİN, F., & Karaman, I. (2005). Antimicrobial effects of Ocimum basilicum (Labiatae) extract. Turkish Journal of Biology, 29(3), 155-160.
Patchouli essential oil treatments used in French hospitals were antimicrobial against HIV/AIDs opportunistic infections. From: Buckle, J. (2002). Clinical aromatherapy and AIDS. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 13(3), 81-99.
Nine plant spice essential oils were tested on various microorganisms (Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida rugosa, Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus niger and showed antimicrobial activity and may be used to combat pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and improve shelf-life of foods. They included: savory, laurel, oregano, basil, cumin, sea fennel, myrtle, and mint. From: Özcan, M., & Erkmen, O. (2001). Antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Turkish plant spices. European Food Research and Technology, 212(6), 658-660.
Tea tree oil demonstrates broad spectrup antimicrobial activity against gram negative bacteria: E. coli, gram positive bacteria: Staph. aureus, and Candida albicans by disrupting the permeability barrier of microbial cell membranes. From: Cox, S. D., Mann, C. M., Markham, J. L., Bell, H. C., Gustafson, J. E., Warmington, J. R., & Wyllie, S. G. (2000). The mode of antimicrobial action of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil). Journal of applied microbiology, 88(1), 170-175.
Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop), Ocimum basilicum (basil), and Teucrium chamaedrys (wall germander) demonstrated antioxidant and antimicrobial benefits. From: Vlase, L., Benedec, D., Hanganu, D., Damian, G., Csillag, I., Sevastre, B., … & Tilea, I. (2014). Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Molecules, 19(5), 5490-5507.
Salvia fructicosa essential oil and its isolated components thujone and 1,8-cineole exhibited antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial strains, and the oil showed antiviral and cytotoxic capabilities. From: Sivropoulou, A., Nikolaou, C., Papanikolaou, E., Kokkini, S., Lanaras, T., & Arsenakis, M. (1997). Antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antiviral activities of Salvia fructicosa essential oil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45(8), 3197-3201.
Ocimumbasilicum essential oils and their principal constituents were found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, and mold. From: Suppakul, P., Miltz, J., Sonneveld, K., & Bigger, S. W. (2003). Antimicrobial properties of basil and its possible application in food packaging. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 51(11), 3197-3207.
Extracts of O. majorana were effective against different pathogenic bacteria and fungi, and highly toxic against the growth of Aspergillus niger. From; Leeja, L., & Thoppil, J. E. (2007). Antimicrobial activity of methanol extract of Origanum majorana L.(Sweet marjoram). Journal of Environmental Biology, 28(1), 145.
Oregano, coriander, and basil essential oil showed the greatest inhibition to the other bacteria and fungi tested. Anise oil was not particularly inhibitory to bacteria but was highly inhibitory to molds. From: Elgayyar, M., Draughon, F. A., Golden, D. A., & Mount, J. R. (2001). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from plants against selected pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms. Journal of Food Protection®, 64(7), 1019-1024.
Multiple eucalyptus species tested were antimicrobial against a range of microorganisms. From:Aldoghaim, F., Flematti, G., & Hammer, K. (2018). Antimicrobial Activity of Several Cineole-Rich Western Australian Eucalyptus Essential Oils. Microorganisms, 6(4), 122.
Fifty-one essential oils were tested against multiple bacteria and yeast and cinnamon showed the strongest action. From: Hili, P., Evans, C. S., & Veness, R. G. (1997). Antimicrobial action of essential oils: the effect of dimethylsulphoxide on the activity of cinnamon oil. Letters in applied microbiology, 24(4), 269-275
Origanum onites, Mentha piperita, Juniperus exalsa, Chrysanthemum indicum, Lavandula hybrida, Rosa damascena, Echinophora tenuifolia, and Foeniculum vulgare were tested for antimicrobial activity. From: Andoğan, B. C., Baydar, H., Kaya, S., Demirci, M., Özbaşar, D., & Mumcu, E. (2002). Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of some essential oils. Archives of pharmacal research, 25(6), 860-864.
Iridoids from noni fruit demonstrated antimicrobial activity against multiple tested bacteria. From: West, B. J., Palmer, S. K., Deng, S., & Palu, A. K. (2012). Antimicrobial activity of an iridoid rich extract from” morinda citrifolia” fruit. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 4(1), 52-54.
Cananga odorata, Boswellia thurifera, Cymbopogon citratus, Marjorana hortensis, Ocimum basilicum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Citrus limon exhibited considerable inhibitory effect against all the bacteria and fungi tested, and also demonstrated antioxidant activity comparable with α-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene. From: Baratta, M. T., Dorman, H. J., Deans, S. G., Figueiredo, A. C., Barroso, J. G., & Ruberto, G. (1998). Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of some commercial essential oils. Flavour and fragrance journal, 13(4), 235-244.
The following commercially bought oils showed antimicrobial activity against multiple pathogens: patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), myrrh (Commiphora myrrha), bergamot (Citrus bergamia), geranium (Geranium maculatum), sandalwood (Santalum album), ylang ylang (Cananga odorata), tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), and lavender (Lavendula officinalis). From: Maudsley, F., & Kerr, K. G. (1999). Microbiological safety of essential oils used in complementary therapies and the activity of these compounds against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Supportive care in cancer, 7(2), 100-102
The monoterpene alcohols in Douglas fir inhibited sheep and deer rumen microbial activity and included: α-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, linalool, citronellol, and fenchyl alcohol. From: Oh, H. K., Sakai, T., Jones, M. B., & Longhurst, W. M. (1967). Effect of various essential oils isolated from Douglas fir needles upon sheep and deer rumen microbial activity. Applied microbiology, 15(4), 777-784.
Myrrh essential oil and extracts were antimicroibial against multiple strains of the bacteria: S. aureus in vitro. From: Adam, M. E., & Selim, S. A. (2013). Antimicrobial activity of essential oil and methanol extract from Commiphora molmol (Engl.) resin. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci, 2(12), 1-6.
Helichrysum stoechas, Polygonum equisetiforme, Pulicaria crispa, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Thymus capitatus exhibited strongest activity against gram positive bacteria H. stoechas. and P. harmala. exhibited the strongest activity against gram negative bacteria. Peganum harmala, P. crispa, and T. capitatus showed strong anticandidal activity.From: Abdelah Bogdadi, H. A., Kokoska, L., Havlik, J., Kloucek, P., Rada, V., & Vorisek, K. (2007). In Vitro. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Libyan Medicinal Plant Extracts. Pharmaceutical Biology, 45(5), 386-391.
Rosemary and sage were tested against against 13 bacterial strains 6 fungi, and 5 dermatomycetes and showed strong antimicrobial activity. Rosemary also showed strong antioxidant activities. From: Bozin, B., Mimica-Dukic, N., Samojlik, I., & Jovin, E. (2007). Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of rosemary and sage (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) essential oils. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 55(19), 7879-7885.
Constituents from garlic: diallyl thiosulphinate (allicin), methyl allyl thiosulphinate, and allyl methyl thiosulphinate showed antibacterial and antifungal activities. From: Hughes, B. G., & Lawson, L. D. (1991). Antimicrobial effects of Allium sativum L.(garlic), Allium ampeloprasum L.(elephant garlic), and Allium cepa L.(onion), garlic compounds and commercial garlic supplement products. Phytotherapy Research, 5(4), 154-158.
Thirteen tested essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against tested organisms. Cinnamin was more effective when not mixed with a solublilizer. From: Hili, P., Evans, C. S., & Veness, R. G. (1997). Antimicrobial action of essential oils: the effect of dimethylsulphoxide on the activity of cinnamon oil. Letters in applied microbiology, 24(4), 269-275.
The following essential oils were tested against a variety of microbes in a variety of environments: cinnamon (Cinnamon zeylanicum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), basil (Ocimum basillicum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), dill (Anethum graveolens), and ginger (Zingiber officinalis). From: Lopez, P., Sanchez, C., Batlle, R., & Nerin, C. (2005). Solid-and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 53(17), 6939-6946.
Lavandula officinalis, Melissa officinalis and Rosmarinus officinalis showed varying amounts of antimicrobial activity on the microbes tested. From: Larrondo, J. V., Agut, M., & Calvo-Torras, M. A. (1994). Antimicrobial activity of essences from labiates. Microbios, 82(332), 171-172.
Ajoene, a constituent of garlic, showed strong antimicrobial activity against multiple organisms tested. From: Naganawa, R., Iwata, N., Ishikawa, K., Fukuda, H., Fujino, T., & Suzuki, A. (1996). Inhibition of microbial growth by ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound derived from garlic. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62(11), 4238-4242.
Rosemary oil may be useful in treating gram positive, fungal, and drug-resistant infections. From: Luqman, S., Dwivedi, G. R., Darokar, M. P., Kalra, A., & Khanuja, S. P. (2007). Potential of rosemary oil to be used in drug-resistant infections. Alternative therapies in health and medicine, 13(5), 54.
Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of differing yellow dock preparations (ether, ethanol, or hot water) were analyzed. From: Yıldırım, A., Mavi, A., & Kara, A. A. (2001). Determination of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Rumex crispus L. extracts. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 49(8), 4083-4089.
Essential oils from R. crispus and R. cristatus showed antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. From: Avci, E., Avci, G. A., Kose, D. A., Emniyet, A. A., & Suicmez, M. (2014). In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils of Rumex crispus and Rumex cristatus. Hacettepe J. Biol. & Chem, 42(2), 193-199
Rosemary extract and its rosmarinic acid constituent showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. From: Moreno, S., Scheyer, T., Romano, C. S., & Vojnov, A. A. (2006). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of rosemary extracts linked to their polyphenol composition. Free radical research, 40(2), 223-231.
The following essential oils demonstrated an antimicrobial effect: Satureja montana (winter savory), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), and Calamintha nepeta (calamint). From: Panizzi, L., Flamini, G., Cioni, P. L., & Morelli, I. (1993). Composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oils of four Mediterranean Lamiaceae. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 39(3), 167-170. Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(93)90032-Z
Against 14 pathogenic bacteria and yeast specimens tested, the following plants showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity: Eucalyptus camuldulensis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Ecballium elaterium (squirting cucumber), Liquidambar orientalis (sweetgum), Cornus sanguinea (dogwood), Vitis vinifera (grape), Inula viscosa (fleabane), Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s Wort), and Punica granatum (pomegranate). From: Oskay, M., & Sarı, D. (2007). Antimicrobial screening of some Turkish medicinal plants. Pharmaceutical Biology, 45(3), 176-181.
Carvone and limonene isolated from spearmint and dill were active against a wide spectrum of human pathogenic fungi and bacteria tested. From: Aggarwal, K. K., Khanuja, S. P. S., Ahmad, A., Santha Kumar, T. R., Gupta, V. K., & Kumar, S. (2002). Antimicrobial activity profiles of the two enantiomers of limonene and carvone isolated from the oils of Mentha spicata and Anethum sowa. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 17(1), 59-63.
Tea tree oil and its terpinen-4-ol constituent showed strong antimicrobial activity against tested pathogens. From: Carson, C. F., & Riley, T. V. (1995). Antimicrobial activity of the major components of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia. Journal of applied bacteriology, 78(3), 264-269.
The study showed antimicrobial activity of tea tree oil resulted from interrupting the permeability barrier in the microbes: E. coli, Staph. aureus and C. albicans.From: Cox, S. D., Mann, C. M., Markham, J. L., Bell, H. C., Gustafson, J. E., Warmington, J. R., & Wyllie, S. G. (2000). The mode of antimicrobial action of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil). Journal of applied microbiology, 88(1), 170-175.
Myrrh was just as antibacterial as marketing antibiotics against pathogenic strains of pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. From: Shaik, J., Vishakha, K., & Ramyasree, D. (2015). Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Commiphora myrrha against antibiotic resistant clinical pathogens. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research, 3(3), 7.
Licoagrodione, a biflavonoid from licorice showed to have antimicrobial activity in vitro. From: Li, W., Asada, Y., & Yoshikawa, T. (1998). Antimicrobial flavonoids from Glycyrrhiza glabra hairy root cultures. Planta medica, 64(08), 746-747.
Tea tree oil efficiently killed S. aureus in the stationary growth phase in biofilms. From: Kwieciński, J., Eick, S., & Wójcik, K. (2009). Effects of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil on Staphylococcus aureus in biofilms and stationary growth phase. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 33(4), 343-347.
Lysostaphin and tea tree oil showed action against methicillin resistant S. aureus. From: LaPlante, K. L. (2007). In vitro activity of lysostaphin, mupirocin, and tea tree oil against clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 57(4), 413-418.
Garlic and tea tree were effective against oral microorganisms. From: Groppo, F. C., Ramacciato, J. C., Simoes, R. P., Florio, F. M., & Sartoratto, A. (2002). Antimicrobial activity of garlic, tea tree oil, and chlorhexidine against oral microorganisms. International dental journal, 52(6), 433-437.
Polytoxinol, a formula containing tea tree and eucalyptus, was successful in an administered percutaneously treat of intractable MRSA infection of the lower tibia in an adult male. From: Sherry, E., Boeck, H., & Warnke, P. H. (2001). Percutaneous treatment of chronic MRSA osteomyelitis with a novel plant-derived antiseptic. BMC surgery, 1(1), 1.
Raspberries inhibit the growth of a variety of bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans. From: Cavanagh, H. M., Hipwell, M., & Wilkinson, J. M. (2003). Antibacterial activity of berry fruits used for culinary purposes. Journal of medicinal food, 6(1), 57-61.
All berry extracts tested showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria related to flavonoids and phenolic acids; raspberry had the strongest antimicrobial activity. From: Puupponen‐Pimiä, R., Nohynek, L., Meier, C., Kähkönen, M., Heinonen, M., Hopia, A., & Oksman‐Caldentey, K. M. (2001). Antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds from berries. Journal of applied microbiology, 90(4), 494-507.
Extracts from Myrica serrata (bayberry) inhibits growth of Cladosporium cucumerinum, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli. From: Gafner, S., Wolfender, J. L., Mavi, S., & Hostettmann, K. (1996). Antifungal and antibacterial chalcones from Myrica serrata. Planta medica, 62(01), 67-69.
Essential oils from anise, angelica, basil, carrot, celery, cardamom, coriander, dill weed, fennel, oregano, parsley, and rosemary were evaluated for antimicrobial activity. Oregano, basil, and coriander showed the highest activity. From: Elgayyar, M., Draughon, F. A., Golden, D. A., & Mount, J. R. (2001). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from plants against selected pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms. Journal of Food Protection®, 64(7), 1019-1024.
Furocoumarins from parsley showed antimicrobial activity against multiple tested organisms. From: Manderfeld, M. M., Schafer, H. W., Davidson, P. M., & Zottola, E. A. (1997). Isolation and identification of antimicrobial furocoumarins from parsley. Journal of food protection, 60(1), 72-77.
Olive leaf extract showed antibacterial and antifungal activity related to phenolic constituents. From: Pereira, A. P., Ferreira, I. C., Marcelino, F., Valentão, P., Andrade, P. B., Seabra, R., … & Pereira, J. A. (2007). Phenolic compounds and antimicrobial activity of olive (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cobrançosa) leaves. Molecules, 12(5), 1153-1162.
Olive leaf and its phenolic constituents have antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. From: Lee, O. H., & Lee, B. Y. (2010). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of individual and combined phenolics in Olea europaea leaf extract. Bioresource technology, 101(10), 3751-3754.
Opeuropein (as found in olive leaf) showed activity against microbes causing intestinal or respiratory tract infections in man. From: Bisignano, G., Tomaino, A., Cascio, R. L., Crisafi, G., Uccella, N., & Saija, A. (1999). On the in‐vitro antimicrobial activity of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology, 51(8), 971-974.
Cineole, citral, geraniol, linalool and menthol were tested against a variety of bacteria and fungi, showing a range of antimicrobial activity. From: Pattnaik, S., Subramanyam, V. R., Bapaji, M., & Kole, C. R. (1996). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of aromatic constituents of essential oils. Microbios, 89(358), 39-46.
Antimicrobial activity and composition of a variety of thyme species were assessed. From: Azaz, A. D., Irtem, H. A., Kurkcuoǧlu, M., & Can Baser, K. H. (2004). Composition and the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of some Thymus species. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C, 59(1-2), 75-80.
Thyme and cumin essential oils contained the strongest antimicrobial activity against a variety of tested pathogens in vitro. From: Farag, R. S., Daw, Z. Y., Hewedi, F. M., & El-Baroty, G. S. A. (1989). Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian spice essential oils. Journal of food protection, 52(9), 665-667.
The antimicrobial activity of of thymol, carvacrol, limonene, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol were assessed. From: Di Pasqua, R., Hoskins, N., Betts, G., & Mauriello, G. (2006). Changes in membrane fatty acids composition of microbial cells induced by addiction of thymol, carvacrol, limonene, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol in the growing media. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(7), 2745-2749.
Thymus Algeriensis with the following major components: linalool (47.3%), thymol (29.2%) and p-cymene (6.8%), showed antifungal and antibacterial activity against tested organisms. From: Dob, T., Dahmane, D., Benabdelkader, T., & Chelghoum, C. (2006). Studies on the essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut. International Journal of Aromatherapy, 16(2), 95-100.
Lamiaceae plants were studied in vitro. Plants including motherwort showed antimicrobial activity. Active constituents included: ursolic acid, siderol and nepetalactone. From: Sattar, A. A., Bankova, V., Kujumgiev, A., Galabov, A., Ignatova, A., Todorova, C., & Popov, S. (1995). Chemical composition and biological activity of leaf exudates from some Lamiaceae plants. Die Pharmazie, 50(1), 62-65.
Both 1,8-cineole and α-pinene constituents isolated from Vitex agnus-castus showed very high antimicrobial potency in vitro. From: Stojković, D., Soković, M., Glamočlija, J., Džamić, A., Ćirić, A., Ristić, M., & Grubišić, D. (2011). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Vitex agnus-castus L. fruits and leaves essential oils. Food Chemistry, 128(4), 1017-1022.
M. vulgare showed antimicrobial activity against some Gram (+) pathogenic bacteria and Botrytis cinerea fungi and also showed cytotoxic activities. From: Zarai, Z., Kadri, A., Chobba, I. B., Mansour, R. B., Bekir, A., Mejdoub, H., & Gharsallah, N. (2011). The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia. Lipids in health and disease, 10(1), 161.
Particles from noni extracts were inhibitory against the following human pathogens: Eschericia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Bacillus cereus and Enterococci sp. From: Sathishkumar, G., Gobinath, C., Karpagam, K., Hemamalini, V., Premkumar, K., & Sivaramakrishnan, S. (2012). Phyto-synthesis of silver nanoscale particles using Morinda citrifolia L. and its inhibitory activity against human pathogens. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 95, 235-240.
Linoleic acid from the roots of a Pelagonium species was the most active constituent against tested mycobacteria. From:Seidel, V., & Taylor, P. W. (2004). In vitro activity of extracts and constituents of Pelagonium against rapidly growing mycobacteria. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 23(6), 613-619.
Root extracts from two Pelargonium species were antibacterial and antifungal against tested pathogenic microbes. From:Mativandlela, S. P. N., Lall, N., & Meyer, J. J. M. (2006). Antibacterial, antifungal and antitubercular activity of (the roots of) Pelargonium reniforme (CURT) and Pelargonium sidoides (DC)(Geraniaceae) root extracts. South African Journal of Botany, 72(2), 232-237.
Myrrh gum resin showed antibacterial and antifungal action against tested microbes. From: Alhussaini, M. S., Saadabi, A. M., Alghonaim, M. I., & Ibrahim, K. E. (2015). An evaluation of the Antimicrobial activity of Commiphora myrrha Nees (Engl.) oleo-gum resins from Saudi Arabia. Journal of Medical Sciences, 15(4), 198.
Antimicrobial activity of myrrh against gram negative bacteria was demonstrated in vitro. From: Chandrasekharnath, N., Mahlakshmi, Y. V., Jayalakshmi, L., Venkanna, B., & Uma, A. (2013). Screening and isolation of bioactive factors from Commiphora myrrha and evaluation of their antimicrobial activity. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 3(2), 1291-1294.
Rosemary extracts were antimicrobial against oral microbes and showed anti-inflammatory action in vitro. From: de Oliveira, J. R., de Jesus, D., Figueira, L. W., de Oliveira, F. E., Pacheco Soares, C., Camargo, S. E. A., … & de Oliveira, L. D. (2017). Biological activities of Rosmarinus officinalis L.(rosemary) extract as analyzed in microorganisms and cells. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 242(6), 625-634.