The listings of research below represent a compilation of scientific articles found on the topic, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. This compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use of any herb listed.
Inhalation of black pepper and angelica essential oil aromas for 2 minutes reduced nicotine cravings in 20 adult smokers. From: Cordell, B., & Buckle, J. (2013). The effects of aromatherapy on nicotine craving on a US campus: A small comparison study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 19(8), 709-713.
Some flavors of gum are effective in reducing the negative affect associated with nicotine withdrawal to help smokers quit. From: Cohen, L. M., Collins, F. L., VanderVeen, J. W., & Weaver, C. C. (2010). The effect of chewing gum flavor on the negative affect associated with tobacco abstinence among dependent cigarette smokers. Addictive behaviors, 35(11), 955-960.
Medicinal herbal teas including Eugenia aromaticum (clove) and Astragalus membranaceus (astragalus) reduced smoking withdrawal symptoms in 100 male participants. From: Lee, H. J., & Lee, J. H. (2005). Effects of medicinal herb tea on the smoking cessation and reducing smoking withdrawal symptoms. The American journal of Chinese medicine, 33(01), 127-138.
In a study of 65 patients addicted to opiates, passionflower along with clonidine was most effective in reducing anxiety associated with withdrawal symptoms. From: Akhondzadeh, S., Kashani, L., Mobaseri, M., Hosseini, S. H., Nikzad, S., & Khani, M. (2001). Passionflower in the treatment of opiates withdrawal: A double‐blind randomized controlled trial. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics, 26(5), 369-373.
Passionflower reduced the dependence of morphine in mice. From: Dhawan, K., Kumar, S., & Sharma, A. (2002). Reversal of morphine tolerance and dependence by Passiflora incarnata–a traditional medicine to combat morphine addiction. Pharmaceutical biology, 40(8), 576-580.
In a double blind, randomized clinical trial of 40 patients, a thyme extract taken with methadone for 15 days helped reduced opium withdrawal symptoms. From: Sayyah, M., Siahpoush, A., & Rahim, F. (2017). The role of alcoholic extract of Zataria multiflora Boiss in controlling opium withdrawal symptoms: a randomized, double-blind study. Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 3, 27-33.
In a study of 51 volunteers going through crack cocaine drug withdrawal, diffusing the the EO of Citrus aurantium reduced anxiety. From: Chaves Neto, G., Braga, J. E. F., Alves, M. F., de Morais Pordeus, L. C., Santos, S. G. D., Scotti, M. T., … & Diniz, M. D. F. F. M. (2017). Anxiolytic Effect of Citrus aurantium L. in Crack Users. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2017.
In a study with 34 male participants addicted to inhalants, lavender aroma was substituted instead. It was seen as an effective substitute treatment that could be part of a treatment program to reduce inhalation cravings. From:Kalayasiri, R., Maneesang, W., & Maes, M. (2018). A novel approach of substitution therapy with inhalation of essential oil for the reduction of inhalant craving: A double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Psychiatry research, 261, 61-67.