The listings of research below represent a compilation of scientific articles found on the topic, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. This compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use of any herb listed.
In this study, 82 essential oils were tested and showed varying antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans. From: Powers, C. N., Satyal, P., Mayo, J. A., McFeeters, H., & McFeeters, R. L. (2019). Bigger Data Approach to Analysis of Essential Oils and Their Antifungal Activity against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans. Molecules, 24(16), 2868.
Palmarosa and cinnamon oils along with their phenolic compounds of thymol and carvacrol were the most fungitoxic against Cryptococcus neoformans common in late stage AIDS patients. Terpenoids, citral, geraniol, and citronellol also showed strong activity. From: Viollon, C., & Chaumont, J. P. (1994). Antifungal properties of essential oils and their main components upon Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycopathologia, 128(3), 151-153.
Tea tree showed antifungal activity against yeasts from cancer patients’ mouths in vitro. From: Bagg, J., Jackson, M. S., Sweeney, M. P., Ramage, G., & Davies, A. N. (2006). Susceptibility to Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil of yeasts isolated from the mouths of patients with advanced cancer. Oral Oncology, 42(5), 487-492.
The combination of essential oil of M. alternifolia with organically bound iodine was effective against the viral skin disease molluscum contagiosum in children. From: Markum, E., & Baillie, J. (2012). Combination of essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia and iodine in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum in children. Journal of drugs in dermatology: JDD, 11(3), 349-354.
A thorough review of research on the antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities of essential oils was provided. From: Reichling, J., Schnitzler, P., Suschke, U., & Saller, R. (2009). Essential oils of aromatic plants with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and cytotoxic properties–an overview. Complementary Medicine Research, 16(2), 79-90.
Tea tree oral solution was effective for AIDS patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis refractory to fluconazole. From: Jandourek, A., Vaishampayan, J. K., & Vazquez, J. A. (1998). Efficacy of melaleuca oral solution for the treatment of fluconazole refractory oral candidiasis in AIDS patients. Aids, 12(9), 1033-1037.
Melaleuca oral solutions reduced oropharyngeal candidiasis refractory to fluconazole in AIDS patients. From: Vazquez, J. A., & Zawawi, A. A. (2002). Efficacy of alcohol-based and alcohol-free melaleuca oral solution for the treatment of fluconazole-refractory oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients with AIDS. HIV clinical trials, 3(5), 379-385.
Tea tree oil reduced symptoms of tinea pedis. From: Tong, M. M., Altman, P. M., & Barnetson, R. S. (1992). Tea tree oil in the treatment of tinea pedis. Australasian Journal of Dermatology, 33(3), 145-149
In a double blind study, tea tree oil at 25% and 50% dilution reduced athlete’s foot; four patients had a dermatitis reaction that stopped when the oil was no longer applied. From: Satchell, A. C., Saurajen, A., Bell, C., & Barnetson, R. S. (2002). Treatment of interdigital tinea pedis with 25% and 50% tea tree oil solution: A randomized, placebo‐controlled, blinded study. Australasian journal of dermatology, 43(3), 175-178.
A mouth rinse containing thymol with eucalyptol and benzoic acid (Listerine) showed oral antifungal activity, especially against Candida albicans. From: Abirami, C. P., & Venugopal, P. V. (2005). Antifungal activity of three mouth rinses–in vitro study. Indian journal of pathology & microbiology, 48(1), 43-44.
Cymbopogan nardus showed in vitro and in vivo anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory action against candidiasis on chronic diabetic wounds. From: Kandimalla, R., Kalita, S., Choudhury, B., Dash, S., Kalita, K., & Kotoky, J. (2016). Chemical composition and anti-candidiasis mediated wound healing property of Cymbopogon nardus essential oil on chronic diabetic wounds. Frontiers in pharmacology, 7, 198.
Myrrh extracts were tested against 20 pathogenic fungi and showed antifungal action. From: Al-Sabri, A. E., Moslem, M. A., Hadi, S., Yassin, M. A., & Ameen, F. (2015). Antifungal activity of Commiphora myrrha L. against some air fungi. J. Pure and Appl. Microbiol, 8(5), 3951-3955.
At a dilution of 2.5%, pine oil was effective against certain airborne fungi. This can help improve indoor air quality. From: Motiejūnaitė, O., & Dalia Pečiulytė, D. (2004). Fungicidal properties of Pinus sylvestris L. for improvement of air quality. Medicina (Kaunas), 8, 787-794.
Oregano, thyme, cinnamon bark, lemongrass, clove, palmarose, peppermint, lavender, geranium Bourbon, and tea tree reduced fungus in heated footbath water. From: Inouye, S., Uchida, K., Nishiyama, Y., Hasumi, Y., Yamaguchi, H., & Abe, S. (2007). Combined effect of heat, essential oils and salt on the fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in foot bath. Nippon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi, 48(1), 27-36.
Sixteen essential oils and forty-two pure constituents were tested against Candida albicans. Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum verum, and Cymbopogon flexuosus along with the pure constituents (by family) of , β-phellandrene, carvacrol, 1-decanol, and trans-cynnamaldehyde. From: Tampieri, M. P., Galuppi, R., Macchioni, F., Carelle, M. S., Falcioni, L., Cioni, P. L., & Morelli, I. (2005). The inhibition of Candida albicans by selected essential oils and their major components. Mycopathologia, 159(3), 339-345.
In vitro anti-candidal activity of Mentha piperita essential oil and its major constituents was demonstrated. From: Samber, N., Khan, A., Varma, A., & Manzoor, N. (2015). Synergistic anti-candidal activity and mode of action of Mentha piperita essential oil and its major components. Pharmaceutical biology, 53(10), 1496-1504.
Of 35 medicinal plants tested, the essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity: Aloysia triphylla (lemon verbena), Anthemis nobilis (Roman chamomile), Cymbopogon martini (palmarosa), Cymbopogon winterianus (lemongrass), Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. From: Duarte, M. C. T., Figueira, G. M., Sartoratto, A., Rehder, V. L. G., & Delarmelina, C. (2005). Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 97(2), 305-311. Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.11.016
Among 49 essential oils tested, palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), red thyme (Thymus zygis), cinnamon leaf (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), and clove buds (Eugenia caryophyllata) were the most antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea. From: Wilson, C. L., Solar, J. M., El Ghaouth, A., & Wisniewski, M. E. (1997). Rapid evaluation of plant extracts and essential oils for antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea. Plant disease, 81(2), 204-210.
Chenopodium ambrosioides, Cymbopogon martinii (palmarosa), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Syzygium aromaticum (clove), and Pimenta racemosa (bay) were the most antifungal on the eight tested strains. From: Delespaul, Q., de Billerbeck, V. G., Roques, C. G., Michel, G., Marquier-Viñuales, C., & Bessière, J. M. (2000). The antifungal activity of essential oils as determined by different screening methods. Journal of essential oil research, 12(2), 256-266.
Thirty plant oils were tested and eucalyptus, peppermint, ginger grass and clove showed strong antifungal activity agaisnt candida albicans. From: Agarwal, V., Lal, P., & Pruthi, V. (2008). Prevention of Candida albicans biofilm by plant oils. Mycopathologia, 165(1), 13-19.
The high fungistatic effects of clove and peppermint oils may be useful for treating skin fungi. From: El-Naghy, M. A., Maghazy, S. N., Fadl-Allah, E. M., & El-Gendy, Z. K. (1992). Fungistatic action of natural oils and fatty acids on dermatophytic and saprophytic fungi. Zentralblatt für Mikrobiologie, 147(3), 214-220.
Cinnamon and its cinnamaldehyde constituent have antifungal properties. From: Wang, S. Y., Chen, P. F., & Chang, S. T. (2005). Antifungal activities of essential oils and their constituents from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum) leaves against wood decay fungi. Bioresource technology, 96(7), 813-818.
Citronellal and linalool found in citronella completely inhibited the growth of all tested fungal strains. From: Nakahara, K., Alzoreky, N. S., Yoshihashi, T., Nguyen, H. T., & Trakoontivakorn, G. (2013). Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass). Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly: JARQ, 37(4), 249-252.
Manuka and kanuka essential oils showed antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory activity in vitro, and may be effective against human infectious microorganisms. From: Chen, C. C., Yan, S. H., Yen, M. Y., Wu, P. F., Liao, W. T., Huang, T. S., … & Wang, H. M. D. (2016). Investigations of kanuka and manuka essential oils for in vitro treatment of disease and cellular inflammation caused by infectious microorganisms. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, 49(1), 104-111.
Clove oil and eugenol have considerable antifungal activity. From: Pinto, E., Vale-Silva, L., Cavaleiro, C., & Salgueiro, L. (2009). Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species. Journal of medical microbiology, 58(11), 1454-1462.
Two terpenoids in cypress showed antifungal activity. From: Madar, Z., Gottlieb, H. E., Cojocaru, M., Riov, J., Solel, Z., & Sztejnberg, A. (1995). Antifungal terpenoids produced by cypress after infection by Diplodia pinea f. sp. cupressi. Phytochemistry, 38(2), 351-354.
Lemon, mandarin, grapefruit, and orange oils were antifungal against food spoilage molds. From: Viuda-Martos, M., Ruiz-Navajas, Y., Fernández-López, J., & Pérez-Álvarez, J. (2008). Antifungal activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L.), mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi L.) and orange (Citrus sinensis L.) essential oils. Food control, 19(12), 1130-1138.
Fennel provided dose dependant antifungal activity. From: Özcan, M. M., Chalchat, J. C., Arslan, D., Ates, A., & Ünver, A. (2006). Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation. Journal of medicinal food, 9(4), 552-561.
Thymol and carvacrol of Thymus glandulosus and Origanum compactum exhibited the strongest antifungal activity. From: Bouchra, C., Achouri, M., Hassani, L. I., & Hmamouchi, M. (2003). Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of seven Moroccan Labiatae against Botrytis cinerea Pers: Fr. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 89(1), 165-169.
Clove and oregano oils were antifungal against the yeast: Saccharomyces cerevisiae.From: Chami, F., Chami, N., Bennis, S., Bouchikhi, T., & Remmal, A. (2005). Oregano and clove essential oils induce surface alteration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Phytotherapy Research, 19(5), 405-408
Essential oils of cinnamon, peppermint, basil, origanum, clove, and thyme caused a total inhibition of fungal development on maize kernels without a phytotoxic effect. From: Montes-Belmont, R., & Carvajal, M. (1998). Control of Aspergillus flavus in maize with plant essential oils and their components. Journal of Food Protection®, 61(5), 616-619.
Camphor, menthol, thymol and oil of Eucalyptus citriodora were the most efﬁcacious components against the test toe fungus organisms. From: Ramsewak, R. S., Nair, M. G., Stommel, M., & Selanders, L. (2003). In vitro antagonistic activity of monoterpenes and their mixtures against toe nail fungus pathogens. Phytotherapy Research, 17(4), 376-379
Pinus sylvestris was fungicidal against pathogens that affect building air quality. From: Motiejūnaitė, O., & Dalia Pečiulytė, D. (2004). Fungicidal properties of Pinus sylvestris L. for improvement of air quality. Medicina (Kaunas), 8, 787-794.
Tea tree oil was antifungal against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From: Hammer, K. A., Carson, C. F., & Riley, T. V. (2004). Antifungal effects of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and its components on Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 53(6), 1081-1085.
Cinnamon essential oil reduced oral candida in vitro. From: Rangel, M. D. L., Aquino, S. G. D., Lima, J. M. D., Castellano, L. R., & Castro, R. D. D. (2018). In vitro effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oil on Candida spp. involved in oral infections. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018.
Rosemary from Sardinia showed strong antifungal activity. From: Angioni, A., Barra, A., Cereti, E., Barile, D., Coïsson, J. D., Arlorio, M., … & Cabras, P. (2004). Chemical composition, plant genetic differences, antimicrobial and antifungal activity investigation of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 52(11), 3530-3535.
Penicillium digitatum fungus was inhibited completely by oregano, thyme, dictamus, and marjoram essential oils at low concentrations. From: Daferera, D. J., Ziogas, B. N., & Polissiou, M. G. (2000). GC-MS analysis of essential oils from some Greek aromatic plants and their fungitoxicity on Penicillium digitatum. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(6), 2576-2581.
Savory was antifungal against Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum,Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria citri. From: Boyraz, N., & Özcan, M. (2005). Antifungal effect of some spice hydrosols. Fitoterapia, 76(7), 661-665. Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2005.08.016
Complete inhibition of mycelial growth and aflatoxin production by the fungus Aspergillus parasticus were achieved by these oils: thyme, cumin, clove, caraway, rosemary, and sage. From: Farag, R. S., Daw, Z. Y., & Abo‐Raya, S. H. (1989). Influence of some spice essential oils on Aspergillus parasiticus growth and production of aflatoxins in a synthetic medium. Journal of Food Science, 54(1), 74-76.
R. crispus extracts were fungicidal against tested plant fungi. From: Kim, J. C., Choi, G. J., Lee, S. W., Kim, J. S., Chung, K. Y., & Cho, K. Y. (2004). Screening extracts of Achyranthes japonica and Rumex crispus for activity against various plant pathogenic fungi and control of powdery mildew. Pest management science, 60(8), 803-808.
The following plants showed antifungal activity against the nine species tested in vitro: Alnus rubra catkins (red alder tree), Artemisia ludoviciana (mugwort) aerial parts, Artemisia tridentata aerial parts, Geum macrophyllum roots, Mahonia aquifolium roots (oregon grape), Moneses uniflora aerial parts, Asarum caudatum whole plant (wild ginger), Balsamorhiza sagittata roots (arrowleaf balsamroot), Empetrum nigrum branches (crowberry), Fragaria chiloensis leaves (strawberry), Gilia aggregata aerial parts and roots, Glehnia littoralis roots, Heracleum lanatum roots (Indian celery), Heuchera cylindrica roots and Rhus glabra branches (sumac). From: McCutcheon, A. R., Ellis, S. M., Hancock, R. E. W., & Towers, G. H. N. (1994). Antifungal screening of medicinal plants of British Columbian native peoples. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 44(3), 157-169.
Rosemary demonstrated antifungal activity. From: Özcan, M. M., & Chalchat, J. C. (2008). Chemical composition and antifungal activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) oil from Turkey. International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 59(7-8), 691-698.
Cinnamon, Mexican oregano, oregano, thyme, and ginger essential oils showed antifungal activity. From: Pozzatti, P., Scheid, L. A., Spader, T. B., Atayde, M. L., Santurio, J. M., & Alves, S. H. (2008). In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. Canadian journal of microbiology, 54(11), 950-956.
Rosemary, and sage essential oil and the component eucalyptol were active against yeast strains. From: Steinmetz, M. D., Moulin‐Traffort, J., & Regli, P. (1988). Transmission and Scanning Electronmicroscopy Study of the Action of Sage and Rosemary Essential Oils and Eucalyptol on Candida albicans/Transmissions‐und rasterelektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen zur Wirkung von Salbeiöl, Rosmarinöl und Eucalyptol auf Candida albicans. Mycoses, 31(1), 40-51.
Cinnamon, thyme, oregano, and cumin stopped mycelial growth at the lowest concentration. From: Tantaoui-Elaraki, A., & Beraoud, L. (1993). Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus by essential oils of selected plant materials. Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology: official organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer, 13(1), 67-72.
Oregano, spearmint, lavender, and sage essential oilsand the constituents of carvacrol and thymol exhibited antifungal properties against the human pathogens Malassezia furfur, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichosporon beigelii. From: Adam, K., Sivropoulou, A., Kokkini, S., Lanaras, T., & Arsenakis, M. (1998). Antifungal activities of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum, Mentha spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, and Salvia fruticosa essential oils against human pathogenic fungi. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(5), 1739-1745.
Roman chamomile, curry plant, hyssop, lavandin, marjoram sweet, orange, mint, spearmint, monarda, oregano, rosemary, rue, sage, tansy, tarragon, thyme common and yarrow showed vapour activity against the fungi that causes ringworm. From: Inouye, S., Uchida, K., & Abe, S. (2006). Volatile composition and vapour activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes of 36 aromatic herbs cultivated in Chichibu district in Japan. International Journal of Aromatherapy, 16(3), 159-168.
Terpinen-4-ol (from tea tree) was active against candida species in the rat vagina. From: Mondello, F., De Bernardis, F., Girolamo, A., Cassone, A., & Salvatore, G. (2006). In vivo activity of terpinen-4-ol, the main bioactive component of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (tea tree) oil against azole-susceptible and-resistant human pathogenic Candida species. BMC infectious diseases, 6(1), 158.
Tea tree has shown activity against the following fungi in multiple cited studies: Alternaria spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. funigatus, A. niger, Blastoschizomyces capitanis, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Cladosporium spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Epidermophyton flocossum, Fusarium spp.,k Malassezia furfur, M. sympodialis, Microsporum canis, M. gypseu8m, Penicillium spp., Rhodotorula rubra, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichophyton mentagrpphytes, T. rubrum, T. tonsurans, and Trichosporon spp. From:Carson, C. F., Hammer, K. A., & Riley, T. V. (2006). Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil: a review of antimicrobial and other medicinal properties. Clinical microbiology reviews, 19(1), 50-62.
Tea tree and lavender oil combined synergistically were effective against the following fungi: Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale. From: Cassella, S., Cassella, J. P., & Smith, I. (2002). Synergistic antifungal activity of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) essential oils against dermatophyte infection. International Journal of Aromatherapy, 12(1), 2-15.
M. alternifolia oil mixed with tissue conditioner was effective in treating denture stomatitis. From: Catalán, A., Pacheco, J. G., Martínez, A., & Mondaca, M. A. (2008). In vitro and in vivo activity of Melaleuca alternifolia mixed with tissue conditioner on Candida albicans. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology, 105(3), 327-332.
Tea tree oil showed action against Candida albicans and maybe useful in treating fungal mucosal and cutaneous infections. From: D’auria, F. D., Laino, L., Strippoli, V., Tecca, M., Salvatore, G., Battinelli, L., & Mazzanti, G. (2001). In vitro activity of tea tree oil against Candida albicans mycelial conversion and other pathogenic fungi. Journal of chemotherapy, 13(4), 377-383.
Tea tree oil was inhibitory against a variety of fungi tested. From: Hammer, K. A., Carson, C. F., & Riley, T. V. (2002). In vitro activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against dermatophytes and other filamentous fungi. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 50(2), 195-199.
Tea tree oil’s antifungal action was related to compromising membrane function. From: Hammer, K. A., Carson, C. F., & Riley, T. V. (2004). Antifungal effects of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and its components on Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 53(6), 1081-1085.
This was a review of research on fungal treatments including tea tree, solanum species, and bitter orange oil. From: Martin, K. W., & Ernst, E. (2004). Herbal medicines for treatment of fungal infections: a systematic review of controlled clinical trials. Mycoses, 47(3‐4), 87-92.
Tea tree oil was effective against tested fungi including C. albicans. From: Mondello, F., De Bernardis, F., Girolamo, A., Salvatore, G., & Cassone, A. (2003). In vitro and in vivo activity of tea tree oil against azole-susceptible and-resistant human pathogenic yeasts. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 51(5), 1223-1229.
Antifungal activity of tea tree oil was demonstrated in vitro. From: Nenoff, P., Haustein, U. F., & Brandt, W. (1996). Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) against pathogenic fungi in vitro. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 9(6), 388-394.
Tree tree oil and its terpinen-4-ol constituent were antifungal against multiple tested organisms. From: Oliva, B., Piccirilli, E., Ceddia, T., Pontieri, E., Aureli, P., & Ferrini, A. M. (2003). Antimycotic activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil and its major components. Letters in applied microbiology, 37(2), 185-187.
Tea tree oil was active against Madurella mycetomatis (Madura foot). From: van de Sande, W. W., Fahal, A. H., Riley, T. V., Verbrugh, H., & van Belkum, A. (2007). In vitro susceptibility of Madurella mycetomatis, prime agent of Madura foot, to tea tree oil and artemisinin. Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy, 59(3), 553-555.
Antifungal activity was demonstrated from the leaves of Myrica gale (bayberry) and its sesquiterpene constituents: germacrone and β-elemenone. From: Carlton, R. R., Waterman, P. G., Gray, A. I., & Deans, S. G. (1992). The antifungal activity of the leaf gland volatile oil of sweet gale (Myrica gale)(Myricaceae). Chemoecology, 3(1), 55-59.
Antifungal activity of thymol as it affects gene expression were assessed. From: Bi, X., Guo, N., Jin, J., Liu, J., Feng, H., Shi, J., … & Yan, S. (2010). The global gene expression profile of the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by thymol. Journal of applied microbiology, 108(2), 712-722.
Thymus vulgaris showed strong anticandidal activity against the Clotramazole resistant pathogen. From: Bonjar, G. S. (2004). Inhibition of Clotrimazole-resistant Candida albicans by plants used in Iranian folkloric medicine. Fitoterapia, 75(1), 74-76.
Thymol reduced biofilm formation of Candida albicans. From: Braga, P. C., Culici, M., Alfieri, M., & Dal Sasso, M. (2008). Thymol inhibits Candida albicans biofilm formation and mature biofilm. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 31(5), 472-477.
The in vitro study demonstrated antibiofilm activity of carvacrol, geraniol, and thymol against Candida. From: Dalleau, S., Cateau, E., Bergès, T., Berjeaud, J. M., & Imbert, C. (2008). In vitro activity of terpenes against Candida biofilms. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 31(6), 572-576.
Limonene and thymol were strongest against Fusarium verticillioides in vitro. From: Dambolena, J. S., López, A. G., Cánepa, M. C., Theumer, M. G., Zygadlo, J. A., & Rubinstein, H. R. (2008). Inhibitory effect of cyclic terpenes (limonene, menthol, menthone and thymol) on Fusarium verticillioides MRC 826 growth and fumonisin B1 biosynthesis. Toxicon, 51(1), 37-44.
Thyme essential oil and its component thymol showed activity against the fungus causing mucormycoses. From: de Lira Mota, K. S., de Oliveira Pereira, F., de Oliveira, W. A., Lima, I. O., & de Oliveira Lima, E. (2012). Antifungal activity of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil and its constituent phytochemicals against Rhizopus oryzae: interaction with ergosterol. Molecules, 17(12), 14418-14433.
Achillea millefolium and three other Achillea species showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aueruginosa, and Salmonella enteritidis. The four species showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. From: Stojanović, G., Radulović, N., Hashimoto, T., & Palić, R. (2005). In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts of four Achillea species: The composition of Achillea clavennae L.(Asteraceae) extract. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 101(1), 185-190.
Cymbopogon nardus showed activity against candida species in vitro. From: De Toledo, L. G., Ramos, M. A. D. S., Spósito, L., Castilho, E. M., Pavan, F. R., Lopes, É. D. O., … & Bauab, T. M. (2016). Essential oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle: a strategy to combat fungal infections caused by Candida species. International journal of molecular sciences, 17(8), 1252.
Hyssop was antifungal against multiple candida species in vitro. From: Hristova, Y., Wanner, J., Jirovetz, L., Stappen, I., Iliev, I., & Gochev, V. (2015). Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis L. from Bulgaria against clinical isolates of Candida species. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, 29(3), 592-601.
C. citriodora, C. nardus, and possibly the cintronellal constituent reduced spore production, germination, and growth of P. grisea, Aspergillus species, and Colletotrichum musae. From: Aguiar, R. W. D. S., Ootani, M. A., Ascencio, S. D., Ferreira, T. P., Santos, M. M. D., & Santos, G. R. D. (2014). Fumigant antifungal activity of Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus essential oils and citronellal against three fungal species. The Scientific World Journal, 2014.
The essential oil from Cymbopogan nardus and its citronellal constituent reduced C. albican adherence to dental implants and screws. From: Trindade, L. A., de Araújo Oliveira, J., de Castro, R. D., & de Oliveira Lima, E. (2015). Inhibition of adherence of C. albicans to dental implants and cover screws by Cymbopogon nardus essential oil and citronellal. Clinical oral investigations, 19(9), 2223-2231.
Antibacterial and antifungal activity of noni was demonstrated in vitro against multiple test organisms. From: Jayaraman, S. K., Manoharan, M. S., & Illanchezian, S. (2008). Antibacterial, antifungal and tumor cell suppression potential of Morinda citrifolia fruit extracts. International journal of integrative biology, 3(1), 44-49.
Bergamot was antifungal against multiple species of dermatophytes. From: Sanguinetti, M., Posteraro, B., Romano, L., Battaglia, F., Lopizzo, T., De Carolis, E., & Fadda, G. (2006). In vitro activity of Citrus bergamia (bergamot) oil against clinical isolates of dermatophytes. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 59(2), 305-308.
Bergamot was antifungal against Penicillium italcium in vitro. From: Sánchez-González, L., Cháfer, M., Chiralt, A., & González-Martínez, C. (2010). Physical properties of edible chitosan films containing bergamot essential oil and their inhibitory action on Penicillium italicum. Carbohydrate polymers, 82(2), 277-283.
Root extracts from two Pelargonium species were antibacterial and antifungal against tested pathogenic microbes. From:Mativandlela, S. P. N., Lall, N., & Meyer, J. J. M. (2006). Antibacterial, antifungal and antitubercular activity of (the roots of) Pelargonium reniforme (CURT) and Pelargonium sidoides (DC)(Geraniaceae) root extracts. South African Journal of Botany, 72(2), 232-237.
Tested essential oils showed antifungal activity against tested fungi. From: Gucwa, K., Milewski, S., Dymerski, T., & Szweda, P. (2018). Investigation of the Antifungal Activity and Mode of Action of Thymus vulgaris, Citrus limonum, Pelargonium graveolens, Cinnamomum cassia, Ocimum basilicum, and Eugenia caryophyllus Essential Oils. Molecules, 23(5), 1116.
Myrrh gum resin showed antibacterial and antifungal action against tested microbes. From: Alhussaini, M. S., Saadabi, A. M., Alghonaim, M. I., & Ibrahim, K. E. (2015). An evaluation of the Antimicrobial activity of Commiphora myrrha Nees (Engl.) oleo-gum resins from Saudi Arabia. Journal of Medical Sciences, 15(4), 198.
Cinnamon, lemon, basil, thyme, geranium, and clove showed high antifungal activity against Candida ssp. in vitro. From: Szweda, P., Gucwa, K., Kurzyk, E., Romanowska, E., Dzierżanowska-Fangrat, K., Jurek, A. Z., … & Milewski, S. (2015). Essential oils, silver nanoparticles and propolis as alternative agents against fluconazole resistant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei clinical isolates. Indian journal of microbiology, 55(2), 175-183.
Pseudolarix kaempferi, Sophora flavescens, Pogostemon cablin, Alpinia officinarum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Melia toosendan, and Polygonum hydropiper showed the strongest antifungal activity of tested Chinese plants.From: Liu, Q., Luyten, W., Pellens, K., Wang, Y., Wang, W., Thevissen, K., … & Luo, G. (2012). Antifungal activity in plants from Chinese traditional and folk medicine. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 143(3), 772-778.
Vetiver oil from both North and South India were antifungal against the tested microbe. From: Dubey, N., Raghav, C. S., Gupta, R. L., & Chhonkar, S. S. (2010). Chemical composition and antifungal activity of vetiver oil of North and South India against Rhizoctonia solani. Pest Res J, 22, 63-67.
Angelica extracts were effective against mold in walnuts. From: Prakash, B., Singh, P., Goni, R., Raina, A. K. P., & Dubey, N. K. (2015). Efficacy of Angelica archangelica essential oil, phenyl ethyl alcohol and α-terpineol against isolated molds from walnut and their antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity. Journal of food science and technology, 52(4), 2220-2228.
Essential oil from the aerial parts of an Angelica ssp. demonstrated antifungal activity against a variety of mucocutaneousfungi. From: Cavaleiro, C., Salgueiro, L., Gonçalves, M. J., Hrimpeng, K., Pinto, J., & Pinto, E. (2015). Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica major against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species. Journal of natural medicines, 69(2), 241-248.
Various extracts of grapefruit peel were antimicrobial, antibacterial, and antifungal against tested pathogenic disease organisms. From: Okunowo, W. O., Oyedeji, O., Afolabi, L. O., & Matanmi, E. (2013). Essential oil of grape fruit (Citrus paradisi) peels and its antimicrobial activities. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 4(07), 1.
Carrot seed essential oil and its carotl constituent showed antifungal activity against the rice fungi: Bipolaris oryzae and Fusarium moniliforme. From: Sharma, M. (2018). Isolation, derivatization of compounds from carrot seed oil and their antifungal potential (Doctoral dissertation, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana).
Essential oil from H. italicum demonstrated antibacterial, antifungal, and antimicrobial against multiople tested pathogens in vitro. From: Oliva, A., Garzoli, S., Sabatino, M., Tadić, V., Costantini, S., Ragno, R., & Božović, M. (2018). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don fil.(Asteraceae) from Montenegro. Natural product research, 1-4.
Extracts from Cistus ladanifer and its isolated phenolic constituents demonstrated antifunal activity against Candida species. From: Barros, L., Dueñas, M., Alves, C. T., Silva, S., Henriques, M., Santos-Buelga, C., & Ferreira, I. C. (2012). Cistus ladanifer as a source of phenolic compounds with antifungal activity. In Planta Medica; 8th Joint Meeting of AFERP, ASP, GA, PSE & SIF, 28th July-1st August 2012 (Vol. 78, p. 1126).
In vitro antifungal activity was demonstrated against multiple species by essential oil from blue tansy containing 13% camphor and 22% sabinene. From: Greche, H., Hajjaji, N., Ismaili-Alaoui, M., Mrabet, N., & Benjilali, B. (2000). Chemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil of Tanacetum annuum. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 12(1), 122-124.
Juniper essential oil showed potent food preservative against food spoilage fungi. From: Nikolić, B., Vasilijević, B., Ćirić, A., Mitić-Ćulafić, D., Cvetković, S., Džamić, A., & Knežević-Vukčević, J. (2019). Bioactivity of Juniperus communis essential oil and post-distillation waste: assessment of selective toxicity against food contaminants. ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 71(2), 235-244.
Antioxidant, anti-fungal, genoprotective, and anti-inflammatory activities of juniper extracts were demonstrated in vitro. From: Fierascu, I., Ungureanu, C., Avramescu, S. M., Cimpeanu, C., Georgescu, M. I., Fierascu, R. C., … & Dinu-Pirvu, C. E. (2018). Genoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal and anti-inflammatory evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract of wild-growing Juniperus communis L.(Cupressaceae) native to Romanian southern sub-Carpathian hills. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 18(1), 3.
Kunzea essential oil showed in vitro antimicrobial activity, some mosquito repelling activity in humans, and may be useful in treating skin fungal and bacterial infections based on a study on horses. From: Thomas, J. (2012). Kunzea oil: investigation of composition, bioactivity and therapeitic potential (Doctoral dissertation, University of Tasmania).
C. sativumessential oil was antifungal against oral candida in vitro. From: Furletti, V. F., Teixeira, I. P., Obando-Pereda, G., Mardegan, R. C., Sartoratto, A., Figueira, G. M., … & Höfling, J. F. (2011). Action of Coriandrum sativum L. essential oil upon oral Candida albicans biofilm formation. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011.
In a placebo controlled study of 40 patients with tinea pedis, a 6% coriander oil solution applied twice daily for 14 days significantly reduced the infection and was well tolerated. From: Beikert, F. C., Anastasiadou, Z., Fritzen, B., Frank, U., & Augustin, M. (2013). Topical treatment of tinea pedis using 6% coriander oil in unguentum leniens: a randomized, controlled, comparative pilot study. Dermatology, 226(1), 47-51.