Latin Name: Malus sylvestris
People have used apple cider vinegar as a topical astringent to help with acne, insect bites, and infections. Internally, it at has also been taken to help with detoxification, sore throats, hypertension, and high blood sugar.
The listings of research below represents a compilation of scientific articles found on the species, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. Research found is catalogued by therapeutic action. This categorized compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use.
- Connealy, L. (2017). Apple Cider Vinegar Benefits. Link: https://www.newportnaturalhealth.com/2017/04/apple-cider-vinegar-benefits/
- Orey, C. (2009). The healing powers of vinegar: A complete guide to nature’s most remarkable Remedy. Kensington Publishing Corp.
- A review of scientific research on vinegar discuses anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial, and anticancer potential, as well as activity against hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and more. From: Samad, A., Azlan, A., & Ismail, A. (2016). Therapeutic effects of vinegar: a review. Current Opinion in Food Science, 8, 56-61.
- A review of research on various types of vinegar showed a potential antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-obesity effect with potential in improving wound healing time, cardiac health, and cognitive function. From: Budak, N. H., Aykin, E., Seydim, A. C., Greene, A. K., & Guzel‐Seydim, Z. B. (2014). Functional properties of vinegar. Journal of food science, 79(5), R757-R764.
- Gopal, J., Anthonydhason, V., Muthu, M., Gansukh, E., Jung, S., Chul, S., & Iyyakkannu, S. (2017). Authenticating apple cider vinegar’s home remedy claims: antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral properties and cytotoxicity aspect. Natural product research, 1-5.
- A review of studies on the anti-diabetic affect of vinegar intake was summarized. More, larger scale human studies are warranted. From: Petsiou, E. I., Mitrou, P. I., Raptis, S. A., & Dimitriadis, G. D. (2014). Effect and mechanisms of action of vinegar on glucose metabolism, lipid profile, and body weight. Nutrition reviews, 72(10), 651-661.
- Taking apple cider vinegar reduced gastric emptying in diabetic patients. From: Hlebowicz, J., Darwiche, G., Björgell, O., & Almér, L. O. (2007). Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study. BMC gastroenterology, 7(1), 46.
- Antiglycemic actions of vinegar were reviewed. From: Johnston, C. S., & Gaas, C. A. (2006). Vinegar: medicinal uses and antiglycemic effect. Medscape General Medicine, 8(2), 61.
- In a randomized crossover trial of about 40 healthy adults, taking vinegar with a meal containing carbohydrates reduced postprandial glycemia. From: Johnston, C. S., Steplewska, I., Long, C. A., Harris, L. N., & Ryals, R. H. (2010). Examination of the antiglycemic properties of vinegar in healthy adults. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 56(1), 74-79.
- In a study of 19 patients with hyperlipidemia, apple cider vinegar taken over eight weeks reduced blood lipid levels. From: Beheshti, Z., Chan, Y. H., Nia, H. S., Hajihosseini, F., Nazari, R., & Shaabani, M. (2012). Influence of apple cider vinegar on blood lipids. Life Sci J, 9(4), 2431-40.
- In a randomized and controlled study of 120 patients with varicose legs, the topical use of apple cider vinegar further reduced symptoms. From: Atik, D., Atik, C., & Karatepe, C. (2016). The effect of external apple vinegar application on varicosity symptoms, pain, and social appearance anxiety: a randomized controlled trial. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2016.
By: Kathy Sadowski