The listings of research below represent a compilation of scientific articles found on the species, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. Research found is catalogued by therapeutic action. This categorized compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use.
Tisserand, R. & Young, R. (2014). Essential Oil Safety. Second Edition. Churchill, Livingstone, Elsevier.
Eucalyptol, as found in rosemary, demonstrated anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-nociceptive activities in this review of research. From: de Oliveira, J. R., Camargo, S. E. A., & de Oliveira, L. D. (2019). Rosmarinus officinalis L.(rosemary) as therapeutic and prophylactic agent. Journal of Biomedical Science, 26(1), 5.
Balm mint bush is high in 1,8-cineole. Here are safety concerns for 1,8-cineole:
Essential oils high in 1,8-Cineole are not for use with young children. From: Day, L. M., Ozanne–Smith, J., Parsons, B. J., Dobbin, M., & Tibballs, J. (1997). Eucalyptus oil poisoning among young children: mechanisms of access and the potential for prevention. Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, 21(3), 297-302.
The 1,8-cineole constituent can cause breathing issues and CNS issues in young children (Tisserand & Young, 2014).
Do not use oil with epilepsy, hypertension, liver conditions, and gastric inflammation.
Toxic induced seizures from the following plants were reported: eucalyptus, fennel, hyssop, pennyroyal, rosemary, sage, savin, tansy, thuja, turpentine, and wormwood. Ketone constituents including camphor, pinocamphone, thujone, cineole, pulegone, sabinylacetate, and fenchone were mentioned. From: Burkhard, P. R., Burkhardt, K., Haenggeli, C. A., & Landis, T. (1999). Plant-induced seizures: reappearance of an old problem. Journal of neurology, 246(8), 667-670.
Mint bush showed antioxidant activities in vitro. From: Tang, K. S., Konczak, I., & Zhao, J. (2017). Phenolic compounds of the Australian native herb Prostanthera rotundifolia and their biological activities. Food chemistry, 233, 530-539.
Phenolic components from Mentha australis and Prostanthera rotundifolia demonstrated antioxidant activities in vitro. From: Tang, K. S. C. (2016). Unravelling the Phenolic Composition and In vitro Activities of Australian Native Mints.
ANTIMICROBIAL / ANTIBACTERIAL / ANTIFUNGAL
Three sesquiterpenes isolated from Prostanthera melissifolia and P. rotundifolia demonstrated antimicrobial activity against tested pathogens. From: Dillar, J. E., Cole, M. D., Gray, A. I., Gibbons, S., & Waterman, P. G. (1994). Antimicrobial sesquiterpenes from Prostanthera aff. melissifolia and P. rotundifolia. Phytochemistry, 36(4), 957-960.
Cajeput oil and its isolated constituents of linalool, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, and 1,8-cineole demonstrated antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients’ clinical material.Balm mint bush is similar to cajeput in that it is high in 1,8-cineole, linalool, and terpinen-4-ol. From: Cuong, N. D., Xuyen, T. T., Motl, O., Stránský, K., Presslova, J., Jedlickova, Z., & Serý, V. (1994). Antibacterial properties of Vietnamese cajuput oil. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 6(1), 63-67.
Carrageenan, cineole, curcumin, and eugenol offered significant protection against herpes type 2 in mice. From: Bourne, K. Z., Bourne, N., Reising, S. F., & Stanberry, L. R. (1999). Plant products as topical microbicide candidates: assessment of in vitro and in vivo activity against herpes simplex virus type 2. Antiviral Research, 42(3), 219-226.
Cineole, citral, geraniol, linalool and menthol were tested against a variety of bacteria and fungi, showing a range of antimicrobial activity. From: Pattnaik, S., Subramanyam, V. R., Bapaji, M., & Kole, C. R. (1996). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of aromatic constituents of essential oils. Microbios, 89(358), 39-46.
In this double blind, placebo controlled, multi-center, placebo controlled study with 242 patients, 200 mg of cineole three times a day reduced airway inflammation in COPD. From: Worth, H., Schacher, C., & Dethlefsen, U. (2009). Concomitant therapy with Cineole (Eucalyptole) reduces exacerbations in COPD: a placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Respiratory research, 10(1), 69.
In a randomized double blind placebo controlled study of 152 patients, 100 mg of cineole three times a day reduced symptoms of accute sinusitis. From: Kehrl, W., Sonnemann, U., & Dethlefsen, U. (2004). Therapy for Acute Nonpurulent Rhinosinusitis With Cineole: Results of a Double‐Blind, Randomized, Placebo‐Controlled Trial. The Laryngoscope, 114(4), 738-742.
In a randomized double blind study of 42 patients with nasal congestion, a nasal spray with Capsicum annum and eucalyptol taken over two weeks reduced symptoms. From: Bernstein, J. A., Davis, B. P., Picard, J. K., Cooper, J. P., Zheng, S., & Levin, L. S. (2011). A randomized, double-blind, parallel trial comparing capsaicin nasal spray with placebo in subjects with a significant component of nonallergic rhinitis. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 107(2), 171-178.
Inhaled 1,8-cineole reduced inflammation in airways of guinea pigs. From: Bastos, V. P., Gomes, A. S., Lima, F. J., Brito, T. S., Soares, P. M., Pinho, J. P., … & Magalhães, P. J. (2011). Inhaled 1, 8‐Cineole Reduces Inflammatory Parameters in Airways of Ovalbumin‐Challenged Guinea Pigs. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology, 108(1), 34-39.
1,8-cineole was shown to improve symptoms of bronchial asthma. From: Juergens, U. R., Stöber, M., Schmidt-Schilling, L., Kleuver, T., & Vetter, H. (1998). Antiinflammatory effects of euclyptol (1.8-cineole) in bronchial asthma: inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism in human blood monocytes ex vivo. European journal of medical research, 3(9), 407-412.
1,8-cineol controlled airway mucus hypersecretion by cytokine inhibition, and may be a useful treatment to reduce symptoms of asthma, sinusitis and COPD. From: Juergens, U. R., Engelen, T., Racké, K., Stöber, M., Gillissen, A., & Vetter, H. (2004). Inhibitory activity of 1, 8-cineol (eucalyptol) on cytokine production in cultured human lymphocytes and monocytes. Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 17(5), 281-287.
Cineole demonstrated good expectorant activity in patients in an emergency room. Li, G. A. O. (1989). The expectorant effect of cineole compositus in 386 patients with respiratory diseases. 新药与临床, 6, 015
Leptospermum petersonii, Prostanthera melissifolia, and Melaleuca alternifolia were the three most effective oils to offer short term repellency against mosquitos. From: Maguranyi, S. K., Webb, C. E., Mansfield, S., & Russell, R. C. (2009). Are commercially available essential oils from Australian native plants repellent to mosquitoes?. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 25(3), 292-301.
Australian plants demonstrated varying degrees of insect (mosquito) repellency and included: eucalyptus, tea tree, cajuput, manuka, balm mint bush, fragonia, myrtle, cypress, and niaouli. From: Webb, C. E. (2014). Insect repellents derived from Australian plants and implications for public health messages. Insect repellents handbook, 213.
1,8-cineole may be effective as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent. From: Santos, F. A., & Rao, V. S. N. (2000). Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1, 8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils. Phytotherapy research, 14(4), 240-244.
This article discussed the effect of 1,8- cineole on mast cells related to rat paw inflammation. From: Santos, F. A., & Rao, V. S. (1997). Mast cell involvement in the rat paw oedema response to 1, 8-cineole, the main constituent of eucalyptus and rosemary oils. European journal of pharmacology, 331(2), 253-258.