Carnosal is a phenolic diterpene found in rosemary, sage, parsley, and oregano.
Links to Plants Containing Carnasol
The listings of research below represents a compilation of scientific articles found on the topic, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. This compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use of any herb listed.
Carnasol, as found in rosemary, demonstrated anti-cancer, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-dermatitis activity in this review of research. From: de Oliveira, J. R., Camargo, S. E. A., & de Oliveira, L. D. (2019). Rosmarinus officinalis L.(rosemary) as therapeutic and prophylactic agent. Journal of Biomedical Science, 26(1), 5.
Carnosic acid and carnosol constituents in Rosmarinus officinalis targeted multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis and may be useful in treating prostate cancer. From: Petiwala, S. M., Puthenveetil, A. G., & Johnson, J. (2013). Polyphenols from the Mediterranean herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) for prostate cancer. Frontiers in pharmacology, 4, 29.
This summarized research on carnosal, as found in rosemary, sage, parsley, and oregano as an anti-cancer agent. From: Johnson, J. J. (2011). Carnosol: a promising anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent. Cancer letters, 305(1), 1-7.
Carnosol, a component of rosemary, was cytotoxic against several acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells tested. From: Dörrie, J., Sapala, K., & Zunino, S. J. (2001). Carnosol-induced apoptosis and downregulation of Bcl-2 in B-lineage leukemia cells. Cancer letters, 170(1), 33-39.
Rosemary extract and its constituents carnosol and ursolic acid applied topically reduced skin tumors of mice. From: Huang, M. T., Ho, C. T., Wang, Z. Y., Ferraro, T., Lou, Y. R., Stauber, K., … & Conney, A. H. (1994). Inhibition of skin tumorigenesis by rosemary and its constituents carnosol and ursolic acid. Cancer research, 54(3), 701-708.
Rosemary and its constituents carnasol and carnosic acid showed a chemoprotective effect in human liver and bronchial cells in vitro. From: Offord, E. A., Macé, K., Avanti, O., & Pfeifer, A. M. (1997). Mechanisms involved in the chemoprotective effects of rosemary extract studied in human liver and bronchial cells. Cancer Letters, 114(1-2), 275-281.
Rosemary and its constituents carnasol and carnosic acid showed activity against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. From: Oluwatuyi, M., Kaatz, G. W., & Gibbons, S. (2004). Antibacterial and resistance modifying activity of Rosmarinus officinalis. Phytochemistry, 65(24), 3249-3254.
Carnosic acid and carnosol constituents from rosemary and sage had a blood sugar lowering effect. From: Rau, O., Wurglics, M., Paulke, A., Zitzkowski, J., Meindl, N., Bock, A., … & Schubert-Zsilavecz, M. (2006). Carnosic acid and carnosol, phenolic diterpene compounds of the labiate herbs rosemary and sage, are activators of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Planta medica, 72(10), 881-887.
Carnosol in rosemary showed anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive action in mice. From: Lo, A. H., Liang, Y. C., Lin-Shiau, S. Y., Ho, C. T., & Lin, J. K. (2002). Carnosol, an antioxidant in rosemary, suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase through down-regulating nuclear factor-κB in mouse macrophages. Carcinogenesis, 23(6), 983-991. Link: https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/23.6.983
This article discusses the anti-inflammatory actions of carnosic acid and carnosol as found in rosemary and sage. From: Poeckel, D., Greiner, C., Verhoff, M., Rau, O., Tausch, L., Hörnig, C., … & Werz, O. (2008). Carnosic acid and carnosol potently inhibit human 5-lipoxygenase and suppress pro-inflammatory responses of stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Biochemical pharmacology, 76(1), 91-97.
Carnosol showed a liver protective effect in rats. From: Sotelo-Félix, J. I., Martinez-Fong, D., & De la Torre, P. M. (2002). Protective effect of carnosol on CCl4-induced acute liver damage in rats. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology, 14(9), 1001-1006.
This study evaluated antioxidant activity of rosemary extract and the active constituents carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid. From: Frankel, E. N., Huang, S. W., Aeschbach, R., & Prior, E. (1996). Antioxidant activity of a rosemary extract and its constituents, carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmarinic acid, in bulk oil and oil-in-water emulsion. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 44(1), 131-135.
This study assessed the types of antioxidant activity of rosemary constituents: rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, carnasol, and rosmadial. From: Pérez-Fons, L., GarzÓn, M. T., & Micol, V. (2009). Relationship between the antioxidant capacity and effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) polyphenols on membrane phospholipid order. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 58(1), 161-171.
Carnosol and carnosic acid as found in rosemary extract, demonstrate strong antioxidant activities. From: Aruoma, O. I., Halliwell, B., Aeschbach, R., & Löligers, J. (1992). Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of active rosemary constituents: carnosol and carnosic acid. Xenobiotica, 22(2), 257-268. Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00498259209046624
Carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid content in rosemary impacted radical-scavenging activity and the anti-inflammatory action was mainly based on the carnosic acid content. From: Kuhlmann, Annette, and Claudia Röhl. “Phenolic antioxidant compounds produced by in vitro. Cultures of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis.) and their anti-inflammatory effect on lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia.” Pharmaceutical biology 44.6 (2006): 401-410. Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880200600794063
Antioxidant activities of carnosic acid and carnosol were demonstrated. From: Wijeratne, S. S., & Cuppett, S. L. (2007). Potential of rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) diterpenes in preventing lipid hydroperoxide-mediated oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 55(4), 1193-1199.
Carnosol, rosmanol, and epirosmanol had an inhibitory activity to LDL oxidation. From: Zeng, H. H., Tu, P. F., Zhou, K., Wang, H., Wang, B. H., & Lu, J. F. (2001). Antioxidant properties of phenolic diterpenes from Rosmarinus officinalis. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 22(12), 1094-1098.
Carnosic acid and carnosol inhibited adipocytes in mice and might be usable in obesity-related diseases. From: Takahashi, T., Tabuchi, T., Tamaki, Y., Kosaka, K., Takikawa, Y., & Satoh, T. (2009). Carnosic acid and carnosol inhibit adipocyte differentiation in mouse 3T3-L1 cells through induction of phase2 enzymes and activation of glutathione metabolism. Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 382(3), 549-554.