Constituents

Oleuropein

Oleuropein is a phenol ethanol as found in olive leaves. Links to Plants Containing Oleuropein…

Vitexin

Vitexin is a flavonoid as found in passionflower, mung bean, bamboo, millet, chasteberry, and hawthorn….

Salicylic Acid

Salicylic acid is a phenolic acid as found in willow bark. Research ANTI-INFLAMMATORY The herbs…

Marrubiin

Marrubiin is a bitter lactone from horehound. Links to Plants Containing Marrubiin   RESEARCH ANTINOCICEPTIVE…

Parthenolide

Parthenolide is a sesquiterpene lactone found in feverfew.  It is not water soluble. Plants Containing…

Withaferin A

Withaferin A is a lactone steroid as found in Acnistus arborescens and Withania sominifera (ashwagandha),…

Forskolin / Coleonol

Forskolin is a diterpene found in coleus.  Multiple studies indicate it may improve cardiac health…

Beta-glucans

Cereal beta-glucans are found in oat, wheat, rye, and barley. RESEARCH CHOLESTEROL LOWERING Beta-glucan from…

Beta-Carotene

Beta-Carotene is a terpenoid carotene with an orange pigment and high in vitamin A.  It…

Aventhramides

Avenothramides are polyphenols found in oats. Research GENERAL HEALTH Whole grain cereal eating can help…

Anthocyanins

Anthocyanins are flavonoids found in dark purple foods like blueberries, raspberries, elderberries, and black rice. …

Perillaldehyde

Perillaldehyde is an aldehyde found in perilla. Aldehydes have a powerful aroma used in perfumery. …

Acetophenone

Acetophenone is a ketone.  It can be found in small amounts in helichrysum. Many ketones can…

Valerenic Acid

Valerenic acid is a sesquiterpenoid found in valerian. Research SEDATIVE Valerenic acid from valerian root…

Artemisinins

Artemisinins is a type of lactone from wormwood / mugwort. Lactones are a type of…

Rosmarinic

Rosmarinic acid is a caffeic acid ester found in many aromatic plants. Research GENERAL The…

Caffeic Acid

Caffeic acid is a phenol as found in thyme, olive, sage, basil, spearmint, ceylon cinnamon,…

Methyl Rosemarinate

Methyl rosmarinate is methyl ester found in rosemary. Research ANTIBACTERIAL Hyptis atrorubens (bushmint), and its…

Carnosic Acid

Carnosic acid is a diterpene found in rosemary and sage. Research ANTIOXIDANT Seasonal variation in…

Carotol

Carotol is a sesquiterpene alcohol that makes up about 40% of carrot seed oil. Research ANTIMICROBIAL…

Oleanolic Acid

Oleanolic acid is an acid found in garlic and many plants. Research HEPATOPROTECTIVE Both oleanolic…

Limonin

Limonin is a furanolactone found in citrus fruits. Research HEPATOPROTECTIVE Limonin from Citrus aurantium exerts…

Limonexic Acid

Limonexic acid is a sesquiterpene lactone found in citrus species. Research HEPATOPROTECTIVE Tetramethoxyflavone and limonexic…

Carnasol / Carnosol

Carnosal is a phenolic diterpene found in rosemary, sage, parsley, and oregano. Research ANTI-CANCER Carnosic…

Ursolic Acid

Ursolic Acid is a triterpenoid found in many herbs of the Lamiaceae family. ANTIOXIDANT Oxidative…

Trans-Asarone

Trans (alpha) and Cis (beta) Asarone are ketones as found in calamus, wild ginger, and carrot…

Carvacryl Acetate

Carvacryl acetate is a derivative of carvacrol.   Carvacrol is a phenol, as in oregano, sage,…

Matricin

Matricin is a sesquiterpene found in chamomile. Research ANTI-INFLAMMATORY The author discussed the anti-inflammatory proazulenes:…

Arzanol

Arzanol is a pyrone found in helichrysum. Research ANIT-INFLAMMATORY Arzanol was identified as a major…

Gingerol

Gingerol is a phenol found in only fresh ginger. Research GENERAL Gingerol and shogaol from…

Paradol

Paradol is a phenol found in ginger. Research ANTI-CANCER Gingerol and paradol in ginger exerted…

Naringenin

Naringenin is a flavonoid as found in grapefruit. Research HEPATOPROTECTIVE Naringenin and quercetin from citrus…

Quercetin

Quercetin is a flavonal found in dill, cilantro, fennel, and many other plants. Research ANTI-TOXIC…

Perillyl Alcohol

Perillyl alcohol is a monoterpene precursor to limonene, and can be found in lavender, sage,…

Leptospermone

The leptospermone constituent is a ketone that can be found in plants from the myrtaceae…

Curcumin

Curcumin is a main component in turmeric. It is also found in ginger. Curcumin can…

Furfuraldehyde / Furfural

Furfural is an aldehyde found in vanilla and smells like almonds. Research ANTICANDIDA Cinnamaldehyde, piperidine,…

Khusimol

Khusimol is a sesquiterpene alcohol found in turmeric and vetiver. Research ANTIVIRAL Khusenic acid and…

Khusenic Acid

Khusenic acid is an acid found in vetiver oil. Research ANTIVIRAL Khusenic acid and khusimol…

Ajoene

Ajoene is only found in crushed garlic. Research ANTIVIRAL Garlic products were tested against the…

Arctigenin

Arctigenin is a lignan found in plants of the Asteraceae family such as burdock.   Research…

Isoflavones

Isoflavones are produced by plants of the Fabaceae family, including red clover, soy bean, and also…

Rosmanol

Rosmanol is a diterpene phenol as found in rosemary and sage. Research CARDIAC HEALTH Carnosol,…

Luteolin

Luteolin is a flavonoid found in carrots, peppers, celery, olive oil, peppermint, parsley, thyme, rosemary,…

Piperlongumine

Piperlongumine is an alkaloid found in long pepper and other pepper species. Research CARDIAC HEALTH…

Verbenone

Verbenone is a ketone as found in rosemary and verbena. Many ketones can be toxic…

Thymol

Thymol is a phenol as found in ajowan, oregano and thyme. Phenols are potent chemicals…

Tannins

Tannins are an astringent polyphenolic component found in a variety of plants such as aloe,…

Phytosterols

Phytosterols include sterols and stanols as found in plants.  The FDA, Health Canada, and the EFSA …

Glycyrrhizin

Glycyrrhizin is a saponin found in licorice root that is an emulsifier.  Side effects of…

Glabridin

Glabridin is a phenol isoflavonoid found in licorice. Research IMPROVED KIDNEY FUNCTION Glabridin, a pyranoisoflavan constituents…

Lignans

Lignans are a phytoestrogen as found in flax, sesame, rye, wheat, oat, barley, brassica vegetables,…

Iridoid

Iridoids are monterpenoid glycosides as found in plants like plantain.  It can also be found…

Sclareol

Sclereol is a diterpene alcohol found in clary sage. Diterpenes are not commonly found in…

Salicylaldehyde

Salicylaldehyde is an aldehyde as found in willow and cassia. Aldehydes have a powerful aroma…

Safrole

Safrole is a phenol methyl ether as found in camphor and sassafras.  It can be…

Pulegone

Pulegone is a ketone, as found in pennyroyal, which is toxic.  It is also found…

Piperene

Piperene is a monoterpene found in hot and black pepper. Monoterpenes are odorless, highly volatile,…

Piperitone

Piperitone is a ketone as found in dill, spearmint, cornmint, calamint, catnip, peppermint, and certain…

Neryl acetate

Neryl acetate is an acetate ester of nerol as found in citrus oils, fenugreek, Melissa,…

Nerol

Nerol is an alcohol found in basil, helichrysum, rose, neroli, myrtle, lemon balm, and thyme….

Nepetalactone

Nepetalactone is a lactone as found in catnip and honeysuckle. Lactones are a type of…

Myrtenal

Myrtenal is an aldehyde with relations to myrtenol. Aldehydes have a powerful aroma used in…

Myrtenol

Myrtenol is a monoterpene alcohol.  It may be found in citrus oils, ginger, peppermint, hops,…

Myrcene

Myrcene is a monoterpene found in juniper, thyme, rosemary, parsley, hops, lemongrass, verbena, cannabis, bitter…

Methyl Salicylate

Methyl salicylate is an ester found in wintergreen, birch, and ylang-ylang. Esters are formed from…

Methyleugenol

Methyeugenol is a phenol as found in estragole type basil, black tea tree, fennel, laurel,…

Menthone

Menthone is a ketone, as found in geranium, pennyroyal, and peppermint. Many ketones can be…

Menthol

Menthol is al alcohol found in peppermint and spearmint. Research ANTIMICROBIAL / ANTIFUNGAL / ANTIBACTERIAL…

Furan / Menthofuran

Furans, such as menthofurans, are oxides.  Menthofuran is an oxide found in peppermint, cornmint, and…

Linalyl Acetate

Linalyl acetate is an ester found in bergamot, clary sage, lavender, and petitgrain. Esters are…

Isopulegol

Isopulegol is a terpenoid alcohol derived from pulegone as found in catnip and mint. Research…

Isomenthone

Isomenthone is a ketone derived from menthone, as found in geranium, cistus, pennyroyal, cornmint, calamint,…

Isoeugenol

Isoeugenol is a phenol derived from eugenol and occurs in ylang ylang, carrot, nutmeg, vetiver,…

Indole

Indole is a constituent found in marigold, neroli, honeysuckle, and jasmine. Research ANTI-CANDIDA Cinnamaldehyde, piperidine,…

Geraniol

Geraniol is a monoterpenol alcohol found in citronella, geranium, thyme, melissa, lemon balm, basil, palmarosa,…

Fenchone

Fenchone is a ketone found in fennel, thuja, cedarwood, and Spanish lavender.  Many ketones can…

Farnesol

Farnesol is an alcohol found in citronella, neroli, lemongrass, palmarosa, and rose. Alcohols are the most therapeutically beneficial…

Eugenyl Acetate

Eugenyl acetate is an ester as found in clove and cinnamon. Esters are formed from…

Eugenol

Eugenol is a phenol, as found in basil, bay, clove, cinnamon leaf, marjoram, nutmeg, pimento,…

Eudesmol, Beta-Eudesmol

Eudesmol is a sesquiterpenoid alcohol as found in cypress, valerian, tansy, vetiver, and Eucalyptus smithii….

Elemicin

Elemicine is a phenol methyl ether as found in elemi, mace, carrot, and nutmeg. Phenol…

Elemene / Beta Elemene

Elemene is a sesquiterpene found in white turmeric, myrrh, citronella, and valerian. Sesquiterpenes are less…

Diallyl Disulfide

Diallyl disulfide is a sulfur found in garlic produced during the decomposition of allicin. Research…

Decenal

Decenal is an aldehyde found in citrus oils. Aldehydes have a powerful aroma used in…

Aloin / Barbaloin

Aloin is an exudate compound found in aloe. Research ANTI-CANCER Aloin inhibit tumor angiogenesis and…

Bisabolene

Bisabolene is sesquiterpene and found in german chamomile, ginger, lemon, oregano, and myrrh. Sesquiterpenes are…

Cymene / Paracymene

Cymene is a monoterpene that can be found in frankincense, thyme, ajowan, oregano, basil, camphor,…

Cuminaldehyde / Cuminal

Cuminaldehyde is an aldehyde found in cumin, caraway, and cinnamon. Aldehydes have a powerful aroma used…

Coumarin

Coumarins are a subgroup of lactones and include aesculatine, citropten, dinydra-coumarin, heniarin, khellin, and umbelliforone. …

Citronellol

Citronellol is an alcohol found in citronella, eucalyptus, geranium, lemon, and rose. Alcohols are the…

Citronellal / Rhodinal

Citronellal is an aldehyde found in citronella, lemongrass, eucalyptus, kaffir lime, and Melissa. Aldehydes have a…

Cinnamic Acid

Cinnamic acid is an acid, as found in benzoin, Peru balsam, and cinnamon. Research SAFETY…

Cinnamaldehyde

Cinnamaldehyde is an aldehyde found in cassia, and cinnamon.  Excessive amounts can cause liver toxicity….

Chamazulene / Azulene

Chamazulene is a sesquiterpene, derived from azulene, and found in German chamomile, giving it a…