Cymene is a monoterpene that can be found in frankincense, thyme, ajowan, oregano, basil, camphor, cajuput, and cumin.
Monoterpenes are odorless, highly volatile, prone to oxidation, and insoluble in water.
Links to Plants Containing Cymene
The listings of research below represent a compilation of scientific articles found on the topic, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. This compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use of any herb listed.
ANTIMICROBIAL / ANTIBACERIAL / ANTIFUNGAL
- Thyme and rosemary were bacteriostatic against Listeria monocytogenes, found in raw and processed foods. Active constituents were thymol and p-cymene in thyme, and a-pinene, camphor, and eucalyptol in rosemary. From: Giarratana, F., Muscolino, D., Ragonese, C., Beninati, C., Sciarrone, D., Ziino, G., … & Panebianco, A. (2016). Antimicrobial activity of combined thyme and rosemary essential oils against Listeria monocytogens in Italian mortadella packaged in modified atmosphere: Thyme & Rosemary EOs vs L. monocytogenes. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 1-8.
- Oregano’s antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus flavus, Botrytis cinerea, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were assessed, with thymol, carvacrol, and p-cymene making it a good antifungal agent. From: Cid-Pérez, T. S., Torres-Muñoz, J. V., Nevárez-Moorillón, G. V., Palou, E., & López-Malo, A. (2016). Chemical characterization and antifungal activity of Poliomintha longiflora Mexican oregano. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 28(2), 157-165.
- This mega analysis reviewed studies of essential oils as antibacterials in food. Several effective constituents included carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, perillaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid. They had minimum inhibitory concentrations with some having synergism such as carvacrol and p-cymene, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol, and between EO components and mild preservation methods. From: Burt, S. (2004). Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review. International journal of food microbiology, 94(3), 223-253.
- The study demonstrated the gram positive and gram negative antibacterial activities of thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. From: Cristani, M., D’Arrigo, M., Mandalari, G., Castelli, F., Sarpietro, M. G., Micieli, D., … & Trombetta, D. (2007). Interaction of four monoterpenes contained in essential oils with model membranes: implications for their antibacterial activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(15), 6300-6308.
INSECTICIDAL / LARVICIDAL
- Against the yellow fever mosquito, pulegone, thymol, eugenol, trans-anithole, rosemary oil and citronellal showed high larvicidal activity. Eugenol, citronellal, thymol, pulegone, rosemary oil and cymene showed oviposition deterrent and/or repellent activities. From: Waliwitiya, R., Kennedy, C. J., & Lowenberger, C. A. (2009). Larvicidal and oviposition‐altering activity of monoterpenoids, trans‐anithole and rosemary oil to the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Pest management science, 65(3), 241-248.
- Essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus, Lavender officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris showed repellent activities against the mosquito: Culex pipiens pallens. Thyme was the strongest and constituents that were effective included alpha-terpinene, thymol, p-cymene, carvacrol, and linalool. From: Choi, W. S., Park, B. S., Ku, S. K., & Lee, S. E. (2002). Repellent activities of essential oils and monoterpenes against Culex pipiens pallens. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 18(4), 348-351.
- Pulegone, thymol, eugenol, trans-anithole, rosemary oil, citronellal, and cymene showed high larvicidal, oviposition deterrent, and/or repellent activities against the denge fever mosquito. From: Waliwitiya, R., Kennedy, C. J., & Lowenberger, C. A. (2009). Larvicidal and oviposition‐altering activity of monoterpenoids, trans‐anithole and rosemary oil to the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Pest management science, 65(3), 241-248.
- Essential oils of cilantro, coriander, cinnamon, oregano, rosemary, sage, clove, thyme, lemongrass, turmeric, mint, basil, and constituents of linalool, cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, terpinene, cymene, alpha/beta pinene, bornyl acetate, camphor, 1,8-cineole, alpha terpeneol, geraniol, perrilaldehyde, and eugenol have demonstrated food preserving potential. From: Burt, S. (2004). Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review. International journal of food microbiology, 94(3), 223-253.
- Total phenol content of essential oils was related to LDL antioxidant activity associated with cardiac heart disease. Phenols included: methylchavicol, anethol, p-cymen, apiole, cinnamic ether, carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, vanillin, cuminol, and eugenol. From: Teissedre, P. L., & Waterhouse, A. L. (2000). Inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins by phenolic substances in different essential oils varieties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(9), 3801-3805.
- P-Cymene had an antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory action in paw edema. From: Marchese, A., Arciola, C. R., Barbieri, R., Silva, A. S., Nabavi, S. F., Tsetegho Sokeng, A. J., … Nabavi, S. M. (2017). Update on Monoterpenes as Antimicrobial Agents: A Particular Focus on p-Cymene. Materials, 10(8), 947.
- P-cymene showed antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory actions in mice. From: Bonjardim L.R., Cunha E.S., Guimaraes A.G., Santana M.F., Oliveira M.G.B., Serafini M.R., Araujo A.A.S., Antoniolli A.R., Cavalcanti S.C.H., Santos M.R.V., et al. (2012). Evaluation of the Anti-Infl ammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice. Z. Naturforsch. 2012;67:15–21.
- Camphene, cymene, and geranyl acetate showed antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. From: Quintans-Júnior, L., Moreira, J. C., Pasquali, M. A., Rabie, S., Pires, A. S., Schröder, R., … & Araújo, A. A. (2013). Antinociceptive activity and redox profile of the monoterpenes. ISRN toxicology, 2013.
- P-cymene showed anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory actions in mice related to an opioid system and modulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. From: Santana M.F., Guimarães A.G., Chaves D.O., Silva J.C., Bonjardim L.R., Júnior W.L., Ferro J.N.S., Barreto E.O., Santos F.E., Soares M.B.P., et al. (2015). The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines. Pharm. Biol. 2015;53:1583–1590.
- P-Cymene had the strongest antinociceptive effect in mice of the three constituents tested. From: Quintans-Júnior L.J., Moreira J.C.F., Pasquali M.A.B., Rabie S.M.S., Pires A.S., Schröder R., Rabelo T.K., Santos J.P.A., Lima P.S.S., Cavalcanti S.C.H., et al. (2013). Antinociceptive Activity and Redox Profile of the Monoterpenes (+)-Camphene, p-Cymene, and Geranyl Acetate in Experimental Models. Toxicology. 2013;2013:11.
- Essential oil constituents with an analgesic activity are reviewed. Included are p-cymene, carvacrol, linalool, eugenol, menthol, alpha-bisabolol, cinnamaldehyde, citronellal, citronellol, citronellyl acetate, alpha-phelandrene, alpha-terpeneol, vanillin, borneol, myrtenol, pulegone, citral, thymol, limonene, nerol, anethole, nerolidol, carvone, farnesol, and beta-caryphyllene. From: Lima, T., da Nóbrega, F., de Brito, A., & de Sousa, D. (2017). Analgesic-like activity of essential oil constituents: an update. International journal of molecular sciences, 18(12), 2392.
Compiled by: Kathy Sadowski