The listings of research below represents a compilation of scientific articles found on the topic, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. This compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use of any herb listed.
Seventeen articles were reviewed on red clover and the mega-analysis concluded a marginally significant effect of T. pratense isoflavones for treating hot flushes in menopausal women with no adverse side effects for short term use and no evidence on long term use. From: Coon, J. T., Pittler, M. H., & Ernst, E. (2007). Trifolium pratense isoflavones in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytomedicine, 14(2), 153-159.
In a double blind clinical trial of 68 menopausal women, valerian root reduced hot flashes. From: Mirabi, P., & Mojab, F. (2013). The effects of valerian root on hot flashes in menopausal women. Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research: IJPR, 12(1), 217.
In a double blind study of 60 menopausal women, isoflavones from red clover at 80 mg a day for 90 days significantly reduced menopausal symptoms, including vaginal cytology and triglycerides. From: Hidalgo, L. A., Chedraui, P. A., Morocho, N., Ross, S., & San Miguel, G. (2005). The effect of red clover isoflavones on menopausal symptoms, lipids and vaginal cytology in menopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Gynecological Endocrinology, 21(5), 257-264.
A meta-analysis of multiple studies on the use of 80 mg a day of isoflavones (for 3 months) from red clover to treat menopause showed a safe and clinically significant benefit to reducing hot flashes. From: Myers, S. P., & Vigar, V. (2017). Effects of a standardised extract of Trifolium pratense (Promensil) at a dosage of 80 mg in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytomedicine, 24, 141-147.
In this double-blinded clinical trial was performed on 48 women valerian was effective in treating hot flashes. From: Kazemian, A., BANAEIAN, S., Parvin, N., & Delaram, M. (2006). The effect of valerian on hot flash in menopausal women.
A double-blind randomized controlled trial on 60 postmenopausal women showed a vaginal cream with fennel applied once a day for eight weeks reduced vaginal atrophy. From: Yaralizadeh, M., Abedi, P., Najar, S., Namjoyan, F., & Saki, A. (2016). Effect of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) vaginal cream on vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. maturitas, 84, 75-80.
In a triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 90 postmenopausal women took 100 mg of fennel twice a day for 8 weeks and showed significant reduction in menopausal symptoms. From: Rahimikian, F., Rahimi, R., Golzareh, P., Bekhradi, R., & Mehran, A. (2017). Effect of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.(fennel) on menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women: a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Menopause.
Extracts from Vitex agnus-castus showed prolactin inhibition activity against rat pituitary cells in vitro and may be useful in treating hyperprolactinaemia. From: Sliutz, G., Speiser, P., Schultz, A. M., Spona, J., & Zeillinger, R. (1993). Agnus castus extracts inhibit prolactin secretion of rat pituitary cells. Hormone and metabolic research, 25(05), 253-255.
Essential oil from the leaf of chaste berry showed reduced menopausal symptoms. From: Lucks, B. C., Sørensen, J., & Veal, L. (2002). Vitex agnus-castus essential oil and menopausal balance: a self-care survey. Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery, 8(3), 148-154.
In a randomized double blind trial of 304 patients, hot flashes were reduced in menopausal women with black cohosh extracts. From: Osmers, R., Friede, M., Liske, E., Schnitker, J., Freudenstein, J., & Henneicke-von Zepelin, H. H. (2005). Efficacy and safety of isopropanolic black cohosh extract for climacteric symptoms. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 105(5, Part 1), 1074-1083.
In a six month controlled, randomized, double-blinded parallel group study, Cimicifugae racemosa extract improved menopause symptoms without an estrogenlike effect. From: Liske, E., Hänggi, W., Henneicke-von Zepelin, H. H., Boblitz, N., Wüstenberg, P., & Rahlfs, V. W. (2002). Physiological investigation of a unique extract of black cohosh (Cimicifugae racemosae rhizoma): a 6-month clinical study demonstrates no systemic estrogenic effect. Journal of women’s health & gender-based medicine, 11(2), 163-174.
A review of eight human studies showed black cohosh to be effective in safe in treating menopausal symptoms. From: Lieberman, S. (1998). A review of the effectiveness of Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) for the symptoms of menopause. Journal of Women’s Health, 7(5), 525-529.
An herbal combination of black cohosh and St. John’s wort reduced menopausal symptoms in a double-blind randomized placebo-control study of 301 women. From: Uebelhack, R., Blohmer, J. U., Graubaum, H. J., Busch, R., Gruenwald, J., & Wernecke, K. D. (2006). Black cohosh and St. John’s wort for climacteric complaints: a randomized trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 107(2, Part 1), 247-255.
Black cohosh reduced hot flashes in menopausal rats without an estrogenic effect. From: Burdette, J. E., Liu, J., Chen, S. N., Fabricant, D. S., Piersen, C. E., Barker, E. L., … & Bolton, J. L. (2003). Black cohosh acts as a mixed competitive ligand and partial agonist of the serotonin receptor. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(19), 5661-5670.
Black cohosh reduced hot flashes in women with a low level of toxicity. From: Pockaj, B. A., Loprinzi, C. L., Sloan, J. A., Novotny, P. J., Barton, D. L., Hagenmaier, A., … & Wisbey, J. A. (2004). Pilot evaluation of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes in women. Cancer investigation, 22(4), 515-521.
Nine randomized placebo controlled trials were reviewed and data showed that black cohosh improved symptoms of menopause. More research on the effectiveness and safety of the herb is warranted. From: Jane McCusker MD, D. (2010). Efficacy of black cohosh-containing preparations on menopausal symptoms: a meta-analysis. Alternative therapies in health and medicine, 16(1), 36.
In a study with 63 healthy menopausal women, inhalation of neroli for 5 minutes, twice a day, for 5 days improved mood and reduced stress and menopausal symptoms. From: Choi, S. Y., Kang, P., Lee, H. S., & Seol, G. H. (2014). Effects of inhalation of essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara on menopausal symptoms, stress, and estrogen in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014.
In a study of 156 menopausal women, Bitter orange and lavender flower powder ingested twice a day for 8 weeks significantly reduced depression compared to the placebo. From: Kamalifard, M., Khalili, A. F., Namadian, M., Herizchi, S., & Ranjbar, Y. (2017). Comparison of the Effect of Lavender and Bitter Orange on Depression in Menopausal Women: A Triple-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. International Journal of Womens Health and Reproduction Sciences, 5(3), 224-230.
In a Chinese randomized double blind controlled study, Cimicifuga racemosa extract was effective and safer than the drug tibolone in treating menopausal symptoms. From: Bai, W., Henneicke-von Zepelin, H. H., Wang, S., Zheng, S., Liu, J., Zhang, Z., … & Liske, E. (2007). Efficacy and tolerability of a medicinal product containing an isopropanolic black cohosh extract in Chinese women with menopausal symptoms: a randomized, double blind, parallel-controlled study versus tibolone. Maturitas, 58(1), 31-41.
Pumpkin seed oil lowered blood pressure and cholesterol levels in low estrogen level rats. From: Gossell‐Williams, M., Lyttle, K., Clarke, T., Gardner, M., & Simon, O. (2008). Supplementation with pumpkin seed oil improves plasma lipid profile and cardiovascular outcomes of female non‐ovariectomized and ovariectomized Sprague‐Dawley rats. Phytotherapy Research, 22(7), 873-877.
Flaxseed at a dose of 40 g was effective as an oral estrogen-progesterone to improve mild menopausal symptoms and lower glucose and insulin levels in hypercholesterolemic menopausal women. From: Lemay, A., Dodin, S., Kadri, N., Jacques, H., & Forest, J. C. (2002). Flaxseed dietary supplement versus hormone replacement therapy in hypercholesterolemic menopausal women. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 100(3), 495-504.
Hot flashes were reduced with a supplement of red clover isoflavones in menopausal women. From: van de Weijer, P. H., & Barentsen, R. (2002). Isoflavones from red clover (Promensil®) significantly reduce menopausal hot flush symptoms compared with placebo. Maturitas, 42(3), 187-193.
In a study of 116 post menopausal women with vaginal atrophy, taking a seabuckthorn supplement significantly improved vaginal epithelium. From: Larmo, P. S., Yang, B., Hyssälä, J., Kallio, H. P., & Erkkola, R. (2014). Effects of sea buckthorn oil intake on vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Maturitas, 79(3), 316-321.
In a study of 117 menopausal women, an ayurvedic blend of Tinospora Cardifolia, Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera and Commiphoramukul taken twice daily for two weeks significantly reduced sypmptoms compared to the placebo. From: Steels, E., Steele, M., Harold, M., Adams, L., & Coulson, S. (2018). A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating safety and efficacy of an ayurvedic botanical formulation in reducing menopausal symptoms in otherwise healthy women. Journal of Herbal Medicine, 11, 30-35.
In a study of menopausal women, ingestion of bitter orange and lavender flower powders significantly reduced anxiety compared to the placebo. From: Farshbaf-Khalili, A., Kamalifard, M., & Namadian, M. (2018). Comparison of the effect of lavender and bitter orange on anxiety in postmenopausal women: A triple-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Complementary therapies in clinical practice, 31, 132-138.
The use of an isolated phytoestrogen from hops in treating menopausal symptoms was discussed. From: Štulíková, K., Karabín, M., Nešpor, J., & Dostálek, P. (2018). Therapeutic perspectives of 8-prenylnaringenin, a potent phytoestrogen from hops. Molecules, 23(3), 660.
A double-blind, randomized, clinical trial with 75 single female students showed dill powder was as effective as mefenamic acid in reducing the pain severity in primary dysmenorrhea. From: Heidarifar, R., Mehran, N., Heidari, A., Tehran, H. A., Koohbor, M., & Mansourabad, M. K. (2014). Effect of Dill (Anethum graveolens) on the severity of primary dysmenorrhea in compared with mefenamic acid: A randomized, double-blind trial. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences : The Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 19(4), 326–330.
Breast pain associated with menstrual cycle was reduced in this double-blind, placebo controlled parallel study of 97 women using Vitex agnus castus. From: Halaska, M., Raus, K., Bĕles, P., Martan, A., & Paithner, K. G. (1998). Treatment of cyclical mastodynia using an extract of Vitex agnus castus: results of a double-blind comparison with a placebo. Ceska gynekologie, 63(5), 388-392.
In a study of 100 women with dysmenorrhea, inhaling rose aroma reduced pain. From: Uysal, M., Doğru, H. Y., Sapmaz, E., Tas, U., Çakmak, B., Ozsoy, A. Z., … & Esen, M. (2016). Investigating the effect of rose essential oil in patients with primary dysmenorrhea. Complementary therapies in clinical practice, 24, 45-49.
Based on a review of data from randomized and non-randomized studies, it was determened that Vitex agnus- castus can be considered an efficient treatment of mastalgia. From: Carmichael, A. R. (2008). Can Vitex agnus castus be used for the treatment of mastalgia? What is the current evidence?. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 5(3), 247-250.
Aromotherapy using neroli reduced premenstrual syndrome symptoms in this study with 62 college students. From: Heydari, N., Abootalebi, M., Jamalimoghadam, N., Kasraeian, M., Emamghoreishi, M., & Akbarzadeh, M. (2018). Investigation of the effect of aromatherapy with Citrus aurantium blossom essential oil on premenstrual syndrome in university students: A clinical trial study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 32, 1-5.
In a clinical trial, Vitex agnus castus extract was compared to the serotonin re-uptake inhibitor: fluoxetine in treating premenstrual dysphoric disorder and patients responded well to either treatment with not statistically significant difference between the two groups. From: Atmaca, M., Kumru, S., & Tezcan, E. (2003). Fluoxetine versus Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 18(3), 191-195.
In a multi-center trial of Vitex agnus castus extract to treat premenstrual syndrome, symptom relief was demonstrated. From: Berger, D., Schaffner, W., Schrader, E., Meier, B., & Brattström, A. (2000). Efficacy of Vitex agnus castus L. extract Ze 440 in patients with pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS). Archives of gynecology and obstetrics, 264(3), 150-153.
In a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group comparison over three menstrual cycles, Vitex agnus-castus extract was an effective and well tolerated treatment for the relief of premenstrual symptoms. From: Schellenberg, R. (2001). Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. Bmj, 322(7279), 134-137.
In a double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group, multi-center clinical trial of 217 Chinese women, Vitex agnus-castus was safe and effective in treating PMS. From: He, Z., Chen, R., Zhou, Y., Geng, L., Zhang, Z., Chen, S., … & Lin, S. (2009). Treatment for premenstrual syndrome with Vitex agnus castus: A prospective, randomized, multi-center placebo controlled study in China. Maturitas, 63(1), 99-103.
In a double blind study of 92 young women, pain associated with menstruation was significantly reduced with the intake of a Rosa damascena extract. From: Bani, S., Hasanpour, S., Mousavi, Z., Garehbaghi, P. M., & Gojazadeh, M. (2014). The effect of rosa damascena extract on primary dysmenorrhea: a double-blind cross-over clinical trial. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 16(1).
In a study of 48 women, an aromatherapy abdominal massage (with rose, lavender, clove, and cinnamon in almond oil) was effective in alleviating menstrual pain and bleeding heaviness. Marzouk, T. M., El-Nemer, A. M., & Baraka, H. N. (2013). The effect of aromatherapy abdominal massage on alleviating menstrual pain in nursing students: a prospective randomized cross-over study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013.
Pain associated with menstrual cycle was significantly reduced in female students who ingested yarrow tea during their menstrual cycle. From: Jenabi, E., & Fereidoony, B. (2015). Effect of Achillea millefolium on relief of primary dysmenorrhea: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology, 28(5), 402-404.
In a study of 120 female students with PMS, an aromatherapy massage with geranium essential oil diluted in almond oil significantly reduced symptoms. From:Lotfipur-Rafsanjani, S. M., Ravari, A., Ghorashi, Z., Haji-Maghsoudi, S., Akbarinasab, J., & Bekhradi, R. (2018). Effects of geranium aromatherapy massage on premenstrual syndrome: A clinical trial. International journal of preventive medicine, 9.
In a randomized study of forty-nine patients, a daily blend of 60 mg soy isoflavones, 100 mg dong quai, and 50 mg black cohosh, for 24 weeks reduced the frequency of menstrual cycle associated migraine headaches. From: Bai, W., Henneicke-von Zepelin, H. H., Wang, S., Zheng, S., Liu, J., Zhang, Z., … & Liske, E. (2007). Efficacy and tolerability of a medicinal product containing an isopropanolic black cohosh extract in Chinese women with menopausal symptoms: a randomized, double blind, parallel-controlled study versus tibolone. Maturitas, 58(1), 31-41.
In a double blind placebo controlled study of 120 women with amenorrhea, taking a spearmint syrup increased menstruation. From: Mokaberinejad, R., Zafarghandi, N., Bioos, S., Dabaghian, F. H., Naseri, M., Kamalinejad, M., … & Hamiditabar, M. (2012). Mentha longifolia syrup in secondary amenorrhea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 20(1), 97.
Administration of fennel reduced symptoms of painful menstruation related to its pro-estrogen activity. From: Ostad, S. N., Soodi, M., Shariffzadeh, M., Khorshidi, N., & Marzban, H. (2001). The effect of fennel essential oil on uterine contraction as a model for dysmenorrhea, pharmacology and toxicology study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 76(3), 299
In a double blind randomized study with 180 female students, an herbal blend of safron, celery seed, and anise helped reduce menstrual pains. From: Nahid, K., Fariborz, M., Ataolah, G., & Solokian, S. (2009). The effect of an Iranian herbal drug on primary dysmenorrhea: a clinical controlled trial. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 54(5), 401-404.
Motherwort had an intensive pharmacological effects on rat uterus that may be useful in treating in treating dysmenorrhea. In vitro, it relaxed uterus spasm, reduced inflammation, and increased the serum progesterone level. From: Jin, R., Chen, Z., Chen, C., & Zhang, H. (2003). Effects of motherwort on dysmenorrhea. The Chinese Pharmaceutical Association, 21(2), 90-93.
The luteal phase of the menstrual cycle was made more regular with Vitex agnus-castus (chaste tree) extract and two women with latent hyperprolactinemia got pregnant in a randomized placebo controlled double blind study of 52 women. From: Milewicz, A., Gejdel, E., Sworen, H., Sienkiewicz, K., Jedrzejak, J., Teucher, T., & Schmitz, H. (1993). Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinemia. Results of a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. Arzneimittel-forschung, 43(7), 752-756.
Vitex agnus castus extract reduced cyclical mastalgia in this placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study, and without increase adverse effects compared to the placebo. From: Halaska, M., Beles, P., Gorkow, C., & Sieder, C. (1999). Treatment of cyclical mastalgia with a solution containing a Vitex agnus castus extract: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind study. The Breast, 8(4), 175-181.
In this review of multiple studies, it was concluded that dopaminergic compounds (including clerodadienols) within Vitex agnus castus improved premenstrual mastodynia and other symptoms associated with premenstrual syndrome. From: Wuttke, W., Jarry, H., Christoffel, V., Spengler, B., & Seidlova-Wuttke, D. (2003). Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus)–pharmacology and clinical indications. Phytomedicine, 10(4), 348-357.
Fennel reduced painful menstruation. From: Khorshidi, N., Ostad, S. N., Mosaddegh, M., & Soodi, M. (2010). Clinical effects of fennel essential oil on primary dysmenorrhea. Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research, 89-93.
Based on a review of research, the author concluded that ginger was the most effective herb for treating menstrual conditions. Cramp bark and black haw were the most effective herbs for pain associated with menstruation. From: Rajabzadeh, F., Fazljou, S. M., Khodaie, L., Abbasalizadeh, S., & Sahebi, L. (2018). Effects of hot temperament herbs on primary Dysmenorrhea: a systematic review. Middle East Journal of Family Medicine, 7(10), 257.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Aloe reduced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats related to a steroidogenic effect. From: Maharjan, R., Nagar, P. S., & Nampoothiri, L. (2010). Effect of Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation on Letrozole induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model.
In female mice, aloe gel had a hypolipidemic effect and reduced polycystic ovarian syndrome symptoms. From: Desai, B. N., Maharjan, R. H., & Nampoothiri, L. P. (2012). Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation restores lipid profile to normal in a letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model. Pharmacognosy research, 4(2), 109.
Peppermint gel in breastfeeding women resulted in less nipple cracks and was more effective than lanolin. From: Melli, M. S., Rashidi, M. R., Nokhoodchi, A., Tagavi, S., Farzadi, L., Sadaghat, K., … & Sheshvan, M. K. (2007). A randomized trial of peppermint gel, lanolin ointment, and placebo gel to prevent nipple crack in primiparous breastfeeding women. Medical Science Monitor, 13(9), CR406-CR411.
Peppermint water was effective in the prevention of nipple pain and damage from breast feeding. From: Melli, M. S., Rashidi, M. R., Delazar, A., Madarek, E., Maher, M. H. K., Ghasemzadeh, A., … & Tahmasebi, Z. (2007). Effect of peppermint water on prevention of nipple cracks in lactating primiparous women: a randomized controlled trial. International breastfeeding journal, 2(1), 1.
The present study shows that colic in breastfed infant improves within 1 week of treatment with an extract based on Matricariae recutita, Foeniculum vulgare and Melissa officinalis. From: Savino, F., Cresi, F., Castagno, E., Silvestro, L., & Oggero, R. (2005). A randomized double‐blind placebo‐controlled trial of a standardized extract of Matricariae recutita, Foeniculum vulgare and Melissa officinalis (ColiMil®) in the treatment of breastfed colicky infants. Phytotherapy research, 19(4), 335-340.
Inflammation was reduced in pregnant women who took an omega-3 flaxseed supplement for 25 weeks. Inflammation declined in both maternal adipose and placental tissue. From:Kordoni, M. E., & Panagiotakos, D. (2018). Can Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Reduce Inflammation in Obese Pregnant Women: A Discussion of a Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Clinical Trial. Hellenic Journal οf Atherosclerosis, 8(4).
Women with high risk pregnancy who inhaled small amounts of neroli essential oil for 2 minutes, three times a day, for five days, had reduced anxiety. From: Go, G. Y., & Park, H. (2017). Effects of Aroma Inhalation Therapy on Stress, Anxiety, Depression, and the Autonomic Nervous System in High-risk Pregnant Women. Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing, 23(1), 33-41.
The article discussed fennel and anise used to increase milk secretion, promote menstruation, facilitate birth, alleviate male climacteric, and increase libido. The main constituent of both fennel and anise is anethole, and it may be the active estrogenic agent. From: Albert-Puleo, M. (1980). Fennel and anise as estrogenic agents. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2(4), 337-344.
Flavone derivatives from Achillea millefolium showed estrogenic activity in vitro. From: Innocenti, G., Vegeto, E., Dall’Acqua, S., Ciana, P., Giorgetti, M., Agradi, E., … & Tomè, F. (2007). In vitro estrogenic activity of Achillea millefolium L. Phytomedicine, 14(2), 147-152.
Red clover extract had a mild estrogenic effect in rats. From: Burdette, J. E., Liu, J., Lantvit, D., Lim, E., Booth, N., Bhat, K. P., … & Farnsworth, N. R. (2002). Trifolium pratense (red clover) exhibits estrogenic effects in vivo in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. The Journal of nutrition, 132(1), 27-30.
Estrogenic activity of F. vulgare was demonstrated in genital size change of male and female rats. From: MALlNI, T., Vanithakumari, G., DEVI, N. M. S. A. K., & FIANGO, V. (1985). EFFECT OF FOENICULUAI VULGARE. MILL SEED EXTRACT ON THE GENITAL ORGANS OF MALE AND FEMALE RATS.
Essential oils of eleven Pimpinella species and anethole as a major compound were studied and it showed that species with low anethole still showed estrogenic activity. From: Tabanca, N., Khan, S. I., Bedir, E., Annavarapu, S., Willett, K., Khan, I. A., … & Baser, K. H. C. (2004). Estrogenic activity of isolated compounds and essential oils of Pimpinella species from Turkey, evaluated using a recombinant yeast screen. Planta medica, 70(08), 728-735.
A combination of oral probiotics and a topical tea tree oil treatment reduced vaginal Candida in this small human study. From: Di Vito, M., Fracchiolla, G., Mattarelli, P., Modesto, M., Tamburro, A., & Padula, F. (2016). Probiotic and Tea Tree Oil Treatments Improve Therapy of Vaginal Candidiasis: A Preliminary Clinical Study. Med J Obstet Gynecol, 4(4), 1090.
In a double blind study including eighty women with bacterial vaginosis, Calendula officinalis was equally as effective as metronidazole at clearing symptoms after one week of use. From: Pazhohideh, Z., Mohammadi, S., Bahrami, N., Mojab, F., Abedi, P., & Maraghi, E. (2018). The effect of Calendula officinalis versus metronidazole on bacterial vaginosis in women: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. Journal of advanced pharmaceutical technology & research, 9(1), 15.
A variety of 31 essential oils were tested against over 600 vaginal organisms with spanish oregano, ceylon cinnamon, Chinese cinnamon, thyme, savory, creeping thyme and turpentine resin showing the strongest activity. From: Arnal-Schnebelen, B., Hadji-Minaglou, F., Peroteau, J. F., Ribeyre, F., & De Billerbeck, V. G. (2004). Essential oils in infectious gynaecological disease: a statistical study of 658 cases. International Journal of Aromatherapy, 14(4), 192-197.
Lemongrass, palmarosa, lavender and rose scented geranium showed in vitro activity against pathogenic vaginal microorganisms. From: Schwiertz, A., Duttke, C., Hild, J., & Mueller, H. J. (2006). In vitro activity of essential oils on microorganisms isolated from vaginal infections. International Journal of Aromatherapy, 16(3), 169-174.
Terpinen-4-ol was active against candida species in the rat vagina. From: Mondello, F., De Bernardis, F., Girolamo, A., Cassone, A., & Salvatore, G. (2006). In vivo activity of terpinen-4-ol, the main bioactive component of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (tea tree) oil against azole-susceptible and-resistant human pathogenic Candida species. BMC infectious diseases, 6(1), 158.
This mega-analysis discussed the research on the therapeutic actions of bergamot.Modern medicine utilizes the plant as an antiseptic and antibacterial. Human studies have demonstrated the aroma to be anxiolytic and help with insomnia. Italian folk remedies rely on the plant to reduce fever, and as an anti-parasite, antiseptic, antimicrobial, antifungal, and antibacterial. It has been used by Italian people to treat skin, oral, respiratory, urinary, and vaginal infections. From: Navarra, M., Mannucci, C., Delbò, M., & Calapai, G. (2015). Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application. Frontiers in pharmacology, 6, 36.
Tea tree oil was effective against vaginal Candida ssp. In vitro. From: Di Vito, M., Mattarelli, P., Modesto, M., Girolamo, A., Ballardini, M., Tamburro, A., … & Mondello, F. (2015). In vitro activity of tea tree oil vaginal suppositories against Candida spp. and probiotic vaginal microbiota. Phytotherapy Research, 29(10), 1628-1633.
In a double blind study, tea tree may have reduced the recurrent herpes labialis virus (RHL) or cold sores but further research is necessary. From: Carson, C. F., Ashton, L., Dry, L., Smith, D. W., & Riley, T. V. (2001). Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil gel (6%) for the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 48(3), 450-451.
Spearmint tea showed antiandrogenic activity and might be useful in treating mild hirsutism in women. From: Akdoğan, M., Tamer, M. N., Cüre, E., Cüre, M. C., Köroğlu, B. K., & Delibaş, N. (2007). Effect of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae) teas on androgen levels in women with hirsutism. Phytotherapy Research, 21(5), 444-447.
Drinking spearmint tea had antiandrogen properties in women with hirsutism. From: Grant, P. (2010). Spearmint herbal tea has significant anti‐androgen effects in polycystic ovarian syndrome. a randomized controlled trial. Phytotherapy Research, 24(2), 186-188.
Used as an estrogenic agent, fennel reduced hirsutism in females. From: Javidnia, K., et al. “Antihirsutism activity of fennel (fruits of Foeniculum vulgare) extract–a double-blind placebo controlled study.” Phytomedicine 10.6 (2003): 455-458.