The listings of research below represent a compilation of scientific articles found on the species, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. Research found is catalogued by therapeutic action. This categorized compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use.
Tisserand, R. & Young, R. (2014). Essential Oil Safety. Second Edition. Churchill, Livingstone, Elsevier.
Essential oils high in 1,8-cineole are not for use with young children. From: Day, L. M., Ozanne–Smith, J., Parsons, B. J., Dobbin, M., & Tibballs, J. (1997). Eucalyptus oil poisoning among young children: mechanisms of access and the potential for prevention. Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, 21(3), 297-302.
The 1,8-cineole constituent can cause breathing issues and CNS issues in young children (Tisserand & Young, 2014).
May be contraindicated with epilepsy.
This essential oil is high in light constituents that are more prone to oxidation.
ANTIBACTERIAL / ANTIFUNGAL
Cinnamon, lemon thyme, thyme, honey myrtle, lavender, and fragonia demonstrated varying degrees of antibacterial activity against multiple tested pathogens. From: Durmic, Z., McSweeney, C. S., Kemp, G. W., Hutton, P., Wallace, R. J., & Vercoe, P. E. (2008). Australian plants with potential to inhibit bacteria and processes involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 145(1-4), 271-284.
In this study, 82 essential oils were tested and showed varying antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans. From: Powers, C. N., Satyal, P., Mayo, J. A., McFeeters, H., & McFeeters, R. L. (2019). Bigger Data Approach to Analysis of Essential Oils and Their Antifungal Activity against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans. Molecules, 24(16), 2868.
Both 1,8-cineole and α-pinene constituents isolated from Vitex agnus-castus showed very high antimicrobial potency in vitro. Fragonia contains over 50% these two constituents. From: Stojković, D., Soković, M., Glamočlija, J., Džamić, A., Ćirić, A., Ristić, M., & Grubišić, D. (2011). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Vitex agnus-castus L. fruits and leaves essential oils. Food Chemistry, 128(4), 1017-1022.
Cajeput oil and its isolated constituents of linalool, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, and 1,8-cineole demonstrated antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients’ clinical material.Fragonia contains similar constituents. From: Cuong, N. D., Xuyen, T. T., Motl, O., Stránský, K., Presslova, J., Jedlickova, Z., & Serý, V. (1994). Antibacterial properties of Vietnamese cajuput oil. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 6(1), 63-67.
Tea tree oil and its components, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol demonstrated activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Fragonia contains similar constituents. From: Carson, C. F., Mee, B. J., & Riley, T. V. (2002). Mechanism of action of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on Staphylococcus aureus determined by time-kill, lysis, leakage, and salt tolerance assays and electron microscopy. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 46(6), 1914-1920.
Cineole, citral, geraniol, linalool and menthol were tested against a variety of bacteria and fungi, showing a range of antimicrobial activity. From: Pattnaik, S., Subramanyam, V. R., Bapaji, M., & Kole, C. R. (1996). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of aromatic constituents of essential oils. Microbios, 89(358), 39-46.
Australian plants demonstrated varying degrees of insect (mosquito) repellency and included: eucalyptus, tea tree, cajuput, manuka, balm mint bush, fragonia, myrtle, cypress, and niaouli. From: Webb, C. E. (2014). Insect repellents derived from Australian plants and implications for public health messages. Insect repellents handbook, 213.
In this placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial 246 patients with chronic bronchitis, long use (one month) of myrtol (contains alpha pinene, cineole, and d-limonene) over one month was tolerable and effective. Fragonia contains these constituents. From:Meister, R., Wittig, T., Beuscher, N., & de Mey, C. (1999). Efficacy and tolerability of Myrtol standardized in long-term treatment of chronic bronchitis. Arzneimittelforschung, 49(04), 351-358.
In this 2 week treatment of 676 patients with chronic bronchitis, myrtol (contains alpha pinene, cineole, and d-limonene) was safe and effective. Fragonia contains these constituents. From:Matthys, H., de Mey, C., Carls, C., Ryś, A., Geib, A., & Wittig, T. (2000). Efficacy and tolerability of myrtol standardized in acute bronchitis. Arzneimittelforschung, 50(08), 700-711.
A combination of pinene, limonene, and cineole improved mucociliary clearance in those with COPD. From: Dorow, P., Weiss, T. H., Felix, R., & Schmutzler, H. (1987). [Effect of a secretolytic and a combination of pinene, limonene and cineole on mucociliary clearance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]. Arzneimittel-Forschung, 37(12), 1378-1381.
In this double blind, placebo controlled, multi-center, placebo controlled study with 242 patients, 200 mg of cineole three times a day reduced airway inflammation in COPD. From: Worth, H., Schacher, C., & Dethlefsen, U. (2009). Concomitant therapy with Cineole (Eucalyptole) reduces exacerbations in COPD: a placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Respiratory research, 10(1), 69.
In a randomized double blind placebo controlled study of 152 patients, 100 mg of cineole three times a day reduced symptoms of acute sinusitis. From: Kehrl, W., Sonnemann, U., & Dethlefsen, U. (2004). Therapy for Acute Nonpurulent Rhinosinusitis With Cineole: Results of a Double‐Blind, Randomized, Placebo‐Controlled Trial. The Laryngoscope, 114(4), 738-742.
Inhaled 1,8-cineole reduced inflammation in airways of guinea pigs. From: Bastos, V. P., Gomes, A. S., Lima, F. J., Brito, T. S., Soares, P. M., Pinho, J. P., … & Magalhães, P. J. (2011). Inhaled 1, 8‐Cineole Reduces Inflammatory Parameters in Airways of Ovalbumin‐Challenged Guinea Pigs. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology, 108(1), 34-39.
1,8-cineole was shown to improve symptoms of bronchial asthma. From: Juergens, U. R., Stöber, M., Schmidt-Schilling, L., Kleuver, T., & Vetter, H. (1998). Antiinflammatory effects of euclyptol (1.8-cineole) in bronchial asthma: inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism in human blood monocytes ex vivo. European journal of medical research, 3(9), 407-412.
1,8-cineol controlled airway mucus hypersecretion by cytokine inhibition, and may be a useful treatment to reduce symptoms of asthma, sinusitis and COPD. From: Juergens, U. R., Engelen, T., Racké, K., Stöber, M., Gillissen, A., & Vetter, H. (2004). Inhibitory activity of 1, 8-cineol (eucalyptol) on cytokine production in cultured human lymphocytes and monocytes. Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 17(5), 281-287.
Cineole demonstrated good expectorant activity in patients in an emergency room. Li, G. A. O. (1989). The expectorant effect of cineole compositus in 386 patients with respiratory diseases. 新药与临床, 6, 015
In a review of essential oils from the Myrtaceae family, those containing higher amount of 1,8-cineole demonstrated the highest activity to inhibit the AchE. Alzheimer’s disease is related to a loss of neuron function and neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). From: Petrachaianan, T., Chaiyasirisuwan, S., Athikomkulchai, S., & Sareedenchai, V. (2019). Screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity in essential oil from Myrtaceae. TJPS, 43(1), 63-68.