Furans, such as menthofurans, are oxides. Menthofuran is an oxide found in peppermint, cornmint, and pennyroyal.
Oxides contribute to an oil’s aroma, and have strong therapeutic actions, but can be neurotoxic, liver toxic, and a respiratory irritant in excess.
Links to Plants Containing Furan
The listings of research below represents a compilation of scientific articles found on the topic, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. This compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use of any herb listed.
Safety / Concerns
- Menthofuran demonstrated liver toxicity. From: Khojasteh-Bakht, S. C., Chen, W., Koenigs, L. L., Peter, R. M., & Nelson, S. D. (1999). Metabolism of (R)-(+)-pulegone and (R)-(+)-menthofuran by human liver cytochrome P-450s: evidence for formation of a furan epoxide. Drug metabolism and disposition, 27(5), 574-580.
By: Kathy Sadowski