The listings of research below represents a compilation of scientific articles found on the topic, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. This compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use of any herb listed.
Gingerol and shogaol from Z. officinale demonstrated sedative, antipyretic, analgesic, gastric relaxant, and anti-tussive activity. From: SUEKAWA, M., ISHIGE, A., YUASA, K., SUDO, K., ABURADA, M., & HOSOYA, E. (1984). Pharmacological studies on Ginger. I. Pharmacological actions of pungent constituents,(6)-gingerol and (6)-shogaol. Journal of pharmacobio-dynamics, 7(11), 836-848.
Ginger rhizome’s gingerol component was an active inhibitor of M. avium and M. tuberculosis in vitro. From: Hiserodt, R. D., Franzblau, S. G., & Rosen, R. T. (1998). Isolation of 6-, 8-, and 10-Gingerol from Ginger Rhizome by HPLC and Preliminary Evaluation of Inhibition of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 46(7), 2504-2508.
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY / ANALGESIC
Gingerol possessed analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in paw edema. From: Young, H. Y., Luo, Y. L., Cheng, H. Y., Hsieh, W. C., Liao, J. C., & Peng, W. H. (2005). Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of -gingerol. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 96(1), 207-210.
Phytochemicals derived from spices can reduce inflammatory diseases. These include: turmeric (curcumin), red pepper (capsaicin), cloves (eugenol), ginger (gingerol), cumin, anise (anethol), fennel (anethol), basil (ursolic acid), rosemary (ursolic acid), garlic (diallyl sulfide, S-allylmercaptocysteine, and ajoene), and pomegranate (ellagic acid). From: Aggarwal, B. B., & Shishodia, S. (2004). Suppression of the Nuclear Factor‐κB Activation Pathway by Spice‐Derived Phytochemicals: Reasoning for Seasoning. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1030(1), 434-441.
The gingerol constituent isolated from ginger showed chemo-preventive and anti-inflammatory action in skin cells in vitro. From: Park, K. K., Chun, K. S., Lee, J. M., Lee, S. S., & Surh, Y. J. (1998). Inhibitory effects of -gingerol, a major pungent principle of ginger, on phorbol ester-induced inflammation, epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity and skin tumor promotion in ICR mice. Cancer letters, 129(2), 139-144.
Ginger had a protective effect in rats induced with gastric ulcers, likely related to gingerol and shogaol constituents. From: Wang, Z., Hasegawa, J., Wang, X., Matsuda, A., Tokuda, T., Miura, N., & Watanabe, T. (2011). Protective effects of ginger against aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Yonago acta medica, 54(1), 11.
Gingerol from Zingiber officinale Roscoe showed antioxidant activity. From: Masuda, Y., Kikuzaki, H., Hisamoto, M., & Nakatani, N. (2004). Antioxidant properties of gingerol related compounds from ginger. Biofactors, 21(1‐4), 293-296.
Ginger root extracts and its gingerols inhibit the growth of H. pylori strains in vitro and this may contribute to its chemopreventative capability. From: Mahady, G. B., Pendland, S. L., Yun, G. S., Lu, Z. Z., & Stoia, A. (2003). Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and the gingerols inhibit the growth of Cag A+ strains of Helicobacter pylori. Anticancer research, 23, 3699.
Gingerol reduced induced skin tumors and inflammation in rodents. From: Park, K. K., Chun, K. S., Lee, J. M., Lee, S. S., & Surh, Y. J. (1998). Inhibitory effects of -gingerol, a major pungent principle of ginger, on phorbol ester-induced inflammation, epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity and skin tumor promotion in ICR mice. Cancer letters, 129(2), 139-144.
This review discussed research on anti-cancer effects of ginger and constituents including: vallinoids, gingerol paradol, shogaols, and zingerone. From: Shukla, Y., & Singh, M. (2007). Cancer preventive properties of ginger: a brief review. Food and chemical toxicology, 45(5), 683-690.
Gingerol and paradol in ginger exerted inhibitory effects on the DNA synthesis of human promyelocytic leukemia cells. From: Lee, E., & Surh, Y. J. (1998). Induction of apoptosis in HL-60 cells by pungent vanilloids,-gingerol and -paradol. Cancer letters, 134(2), 163-168.