The listings of research below represent a compilation of scientific articles found on the topic, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. This compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use of any herb listed.
A review of the clinical studies of cannabis was provided. Study topics included: chronic pain, multiple sclerosis, irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn’s disease, appetite, nausea, pulmonary disease, drug addiction, anxiety, psychosis, and Parkinson’s disease. From: Kowal, M. A., Hazekamp, A., & Grotenhermen, F. (2016). Review on clinical studies with cannabis and cannabinoids 2010-2014. Multiple sclerosis, 6(1515), 202010-2014.
In this review of research, terpenes found in cannabis and hops showed the following therapeutic actions in scientific studies: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, anticonvulsive, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anticancer, antitumor, neuroprotective, anti-mutagenic, anti-allergic, antibiotic and anti-diabetic. From: Nuutinen, T. (2018). Medicinal properties of terpenes found in Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus. European journal of medicinal chemistry.
Cannabinoids are the key active components of Cannabis sativa, and there are over 100 different types, including CBD (cannabidiol) and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). In addition to cannabinoids, other significant chemical constituents include myrcene, limonene, pinene, and β-caryophyllene. From: ElSohly, M. A., & Slade, D. (2005). Chemical constituents of marijuana: the complex mixture of natural cannabinoids. Life sciences, 78(5), 539-548
Hemp seed oil is a good source of fatty acids for skin care use. From: Vogl, C. R., Mölleken, H., Lissek-Wolf, G., Surböck, A., & Kobert, J. (2004). Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as a resource for green cosmetics: Yield of seed and fatty acid compositions of 20 varieties under the growing conditions of organic farming in Austria. Journal of Industrial Hemp, 9(1), 51-68.
In a 20 week randomized test, intake of hemp seed oil significantly improved patients’ plasma fatty acid profile and reduced the signs of atopic dermatitis. From: Callaway, J., Schwab, U., Harvima, I., Halonen, P., Mykkänen, O., Hyvönen, P., & Järvinen, T. (2005). Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis. Journal of Dermatological Treatment, 16(2), 87-94.
A cannabis seed extract reduced sebum production and the acne erythema in a study of healthy males over 12 weeks. From: Ali, A., & Akhtar, N. (2015). The safety and efficacy of 3% Cannabis seeds extract cream for reduction of human cheek skin sebum and erythema content. Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 28(4).
In a review of using cannabis in a dermatology clinics, the author summarized the following approved indications included:psoriasis, lupus, nail-patella syndrome, and severe pain. The author further indicated that preliminary studies show potential for the plant in treating: acne, dermatitis, pruritus, wound healing, and skin cancer. More human studies are needed. From: Dhadwal, G., & Kirchhof, M. G. (2018). The Risks and Benefits of Cannabis in the Dermatology Clinic. Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery, 22(2), 194-199.
The possibilities of using cannaboids to treat psoriasis was reviewed. From: Derakhshan, N., & Kazemi, M. (2016). Cannabis for Refractory Psoriasis-High Hopes for a Novel Treatment and a Literature Review. Current clinical pharmacology, 11(2), 146-147.
Cannabis extracts of CBD showed in vitro anti-inflammatory skin action. From: Fumagalli, M., Sangiovanni, E., Pacchetti, B., Piazza, S., & Dell’Agli, M. (2017). Anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis sativa L. extracts in an in vitro model of skin inflammation. Planta Medica International Open, 4(S 01), We-SL.
This in vitro study demonstrated a dose of 0.6–6.2 mg/day of a CBD gel significantly reduced arthritic joint pain and swelling. From: Hammell, D. C., Zhang, L. P., Ma, F., Abshire, S. M., McIlwrath, S. L., Stinchcomb, A. L., & Westlund, K. N. (2016). Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain‐related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. European Journal of Pain, 20(6), 936-948.
Essential oils / herbs and their effect on human behavior was reviewed. St. John’s wort has shown to have an anxiolytic effect. Lavender has shown to decrease anxiety while improving sleep quality. Cannabis has a sedative effect and reduces anxiety. Bergamot has shown to improve relaxation. Olive oil has shown an anxiolytic effect. Black cummin has been both anxiolytic and anti-depressive. Valerian has shown to be a sedative that helps induce sleep. From: Castillo, M. A., Carrero, Y., Urdaneta, K. E., Renouf, M., Lubin, C., Nola, M., & Semprún-Hernández, N. (2018). ESSENTIAL OILS AS MODIFIERS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 21(1).
Botanicals were reviewed for their scientific research on treating headaches, and included feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), butterbur (Petasites hybridus), marijuana (Cannabis sativa), Saint John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) and the Damask rose (Rosa damascena). From: Rajapakse, T., & Davenport, W. J. (2019). Phytomedicines in the treatment of migraine. CNS drugs, 33(5), 399-415.