The listings of research below represent a compilation of scientific articles found on the topic, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. This compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use of any herb listed.
This review discusses research on the anti-diabetic activity of plants including Allium sativum (garlic), Gymnema sylvestre (cowplant), Citrullus colocynthis (bitter apple), Trigonella foenum greacum (fenugreek), Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and Ficus bengalensis (Indian banyan). From: Patel, D. K., Prasad, S. K., Kumar, R., & Hemalatha, S. (2012). An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine, 2(4), 320-330.
In a review of 10 randomized controlled trials, cinnamon taken over a period of 4-16 weeks reduced blood sugar and cholesterol levels. From: Allen, R. W., Schwartzman, E., Baker, W. L., Coleman, C. I., & Phung, O. J. (2013). Cinnamon use in type 2 diabetes: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. The Annals of Family Medicine, 11(5), 452-459.
In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical with 70 type 2 diabetic patients, taking 1600 mg of ginger daily for 12 weeks reduced fasting glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and inflammatory markers significantly. From: Arablou, T., Aryaeian, N., Valizadeh, M., Sharifi, F., Hosseini, A., & Djalali, M. (2014). The effect of ginger consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and some inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 65(4), 515-520.
In a study of 140 patients with type 2 diabetes, patients who took cinnamon over 3 months showed an improvement in blood sugar and cholesteral levels, especially in those patients with a high BMI. From: Zare, R., Nadjarzadeh, A., Zarshenas, M. M., Shams, M., & Heydari, M. (2018). Efficacy of cinnamon in patients with type II diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Clinical Nutrition.
In this double blind clinical trial of 80 patients with type 2 diabetes, intake of sage significantly reduced blood sugar and cholesterol levels. From: Behradmanesh, S., Derees, F., & Rafieian-kopaei, M. (2013). Effect of Salvia officinalis on diabetic patients. Journal of renal injury prevention, 2(2), 51.
A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover single blind trial showed holy basil reduced blood sugar levels in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. From: Agrawal, P., Rai, V., & Singh, R. B. (1996). Randomized placebo-controlled, single blind trial of holy basil leaves in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, 34(9), 406-409.
In a randomized controlled trial with 40 adult males, taking 3 grams of tulsi leaves a day for 6.5 weeks signficantly reduced blool sugar levels. From: Gandhi, R., Chauhan, B., & Jadeja, G. (2016). Effect of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) powder on hyperglycemic patient. Indian Journal of Applied Research, 6(5).
In a study with fifty diabetic patients, the treatment group took 10 g/100 mL boiling watera twice a day for 4 weeks of a chamomile infusion, resulting in significantly lowered cholesterol and blood sugar levels. From: Kaseb, F., Yazdanpanah, Z., Biregani, A. N., Yazdi, N. B., & Yazdanpanah, Z. (2018). The effect of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) infusion on blood glucose, lipid profile and kidney function in Type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized clinical trial. Progress in Nutrition, 20(1-S), 110-118.
In this triple-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial with 140 patients with type II diabetes, the group who took 500 mg of cinnamon bark powder taken twice daily for 3 months reduced body fat, insulin resistance, and cholesterol levels. From: Zare, R., Nadjarzadeh, A., Zarshenas, M. M., Shams, M., & Heydari, M. (2019). Efficacy of cinnamon in patients with type II diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Clinical Nutrition, 38(2), 549-556.
In a study of 30 young overweight participants, 250 mg twice a day for 8 weeks of a basil supplement resulted in improved insulin, cholesterol, and body weight levels. From: Satapathy, S., Das, N., Bandyopadhyay, D., Mahapatra, S. C., Sahu, D. S., & Meda, M. (2017). Effect of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) supplementation on metabolic parameters and liver enzymes in young overweight and obese subjects. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 32(3), 357-363.
In a small study of 10 overweight adults who took 100 grams of acai pulp twice a day for a month, cholesterol and glucose levels were reduced. From: Udani, J. K., Singh, B. B., Singh, V. J., & Barrett, M. L. (2011). Effects of Acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry preparation on metabolic parameters in a healthy overweight population: a pilot study. Nutrition journal, 10(1), 45.
Raw garlic consumption reduced serum lipid and bloog sugar levels in hyperglycemic patients. From: Mahmoodi, M., Zijoud, S. H., Hassanshahi, G. H., Toghroli, M. A., Khaksari, M., Hajizadeh, M. R., & Mirzajani, E. (2011). The effects of consumption of raw garlic on serum lipid level, blood sugar and a number of effective hormones on lipid and sugar metabolism in hyperglycemic and/or hyperlipidemic individuals——Benefit of raw garlic consumption. Advances in Biological Chemistry, 1(02), 29.
In a randomized parallel control study with 60 diabetic adults, 13 weeks of taking 300 mg of tulsi leaves plus 5 mg of glibenclamide reduced blood sugar levels. From: Somasundaram, G., Manimekalai, K., Salwe, K. J., & Pandiamunian, J. (2012). Evaluation of the antidiabetic effect of Ocimum sanctum in type 2 diabetic patients. International journal of life science and pharma research, 5, 75-81.
In a study with 400 diabetic patients, Mangifera indica, Murraya koenigii, Ocimum santum, Phyllanthus amarus, Allium cep and Azadirachta indica had an anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effect. From: Dineshkumar, B., Analava, M., & Manjunatha, M. (2010). Antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effects of few common plants extract in type 2 diabetic patients at Bengal. International Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism, 18(2), 59-65.
In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 1000 mg ginger reduces serum fasting glucose in peritoneal dialysis patients. From: Imani, H., Tabibi, H., Najafi, I., Atabak, S., Hedayati, M., & Rahmani, L. (2015). Effects of ginger on serum glucose, advanced glycation end products, and inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Nutrition, 31(5), 703-707.
In a study of 60 patients with diabetic neuropathy, taking an omega-3 flaxseed supplement for 12 weeks significantly reduced serum insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. From:Soleimani, A., Taghizadeh, M., Bahmani, F., Badroj, N., & Asemi, Z. (2017). Metabolic response to omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with diabetic nephropathy: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition, 36(1), 79-84.
In a study with 100 adults, taking a tulsi supplement (5 mL 2 times a day for 3 months) reduced blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid profile. From: Devra, D. K., Mathur, K. C., Agrawal, R. P., Bhadu, I., Goyal, S., & Agarwal, V. (2012). Effect of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) on clinical and biochemical parameters of metabolic syndrome. Journal of Natural Remedies, 12(1), 63-67.
In a study of 60 women with polycystic ovary syndrome, taking a flaxseed omega-3 supplement twice daily for 12 weeks improved insulin metabolism and cholesterol levels with little effect on hormone levels and lipid levels. From: Mirmasoumi, G., Fazilati, M., Foroozanfard, F., Vahedpoor, Z., Mahmoodi, S., Taghizadeh, M., … & Asemi, Z. (2018). The Effects of flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on metabolic status of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes, 126(04), 222-228.
In a randomized placebo controlled trial of 62 patients with type 2 diabetes, taking a Melissa officinalis extract of 700 mg twice a day for 12 weeks improved lipid profile and glycemic measurements. From: Asadi, A., Shidfar, F., Safari, M., Hosseini, A. F., Fallah Huseini, H., Heidari, I., & Rajab, A. (2019). Efficacy of Melissa officinalis L.(lemon balm) extract on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, double‐blind, clinical trial. Phytotherapy research, 33(3), 651-659.
In a review of research, with seven RCTs and 546 subjects, eating goji berries reduced blood sugar levels. From: Guo, X. F., Li, Z. H., Cai, H., & Li, D. (2017). The effects of Lycium barbarum L.(L. barbarum) on cardiometabolic risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Food & function, 8(5), 1741-1748.
In a double blind study of 67 patients with type two diabetes, eating goji berries had a hypoglycemic effect. From:Cai, H., Liu, F., Zuo, P., Huang, G., Song, Z., Wang, T., … & Sun, G. (2015). Practical application of antidiabetic efficacy of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide in patients with type 2 diabetes. Medicinal Chemistry, 11(4), 383-390.
Goji berry and yellow dock supplements given to diabetic rats reduced blood sugar levels. From: Muselin, F., Brezovan, D., Savici, J., Cristina, R. T., Dumitrescu, E., Doma, A. O., … & Trif, A. (2015). The Use of Yellow Dock (Rumex crispus) and Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum) in Alloxan Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats. Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 48(1), 373-376.
Noni fruit juice drinken for 2 months by diabetic patients helped lower blood sugar levels. From: Algenstaedt, P., Stumpenhagen, A., & Westendorf, J. (2018). The Effect of Morinda citrifolia L. Fruit Juice on the Blood Sugar Level and Other Serum Parameters in Patients with Diabetes Type 2. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018.
42 healthy males who took a goji berry polysaccharide supplement for 4 weeks showed reduced blood sugar and cholesterol levels. From: Xia, H., Tang, H., Wang, F., Yang, X., Wang, Z., Liu, H., … & Sun, G. (2018). Metabolic effects of dietary supplementation of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on serum and urine metabolomics in a young healthy male population. Journal of Functional Foods, 46, 440-448.
In a review of human studies, chia seeds were shown to help reduce LDL cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, and diastolic blood pressure. However, further high quality human studies are needed. From: Teoh, S. L., Lai, N. M., Vanichkulpitak, P., Vuksan, V., Ho, H., & Chaiyakunapruk, N. (2018). Clinical evidence on dietary supplementation with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition reviews, 76(4), 219-242.
In a randomized placebo controlled study of 40 patients with high cholesterol and type 2 diabetes, intake of a 500 mg sage extract daily for three months lowered cholesterol and blood sugar levels. From: Kianbakht, S., & Dabaghian, F. H. (2013). Improved glycemic control and lipid profile in hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients consuming Salvia officinalis L. leaf extract: a randomized placebo. Controlled clinical trial. Complementary therapies in medicine, 21(5), 441-446.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial for a period of 4 months of 210 subjects with diabetes showed that cinnamon warrants further research. From: Ranasinghe, P., Galappaththy, P., Constantine, G. R., Jayawardena, R., Weeratunga, H. D., Premakumara, S., & Katulanda, P. (2017). Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) as a potential pharmaceutical agent for type-2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 18(1), 446.
In a randomized double blind placebo controlled study of 66 women with polycystic ovarian syndrome,cinnamon significantly reduced fasting insulin and insulin resistance. From: Hajimonfarednejad, M., Nimrouzi, M., Heydari, M., Zarshenas, M. M., Raee, M. J., & Jahromi, B. N. (2017). Insulin resistance improvement by cinnamon powder in polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized double‐blind placebo controlled clinical trial. Phytotherapy Research.
In a randomized study of 91 hyperlipidemic patients, dill tablets over two months decreased total cholesterol more than the drug gemfibrozil with no reported side effects. From: Mirhosseini, M., Baradaran, A., & Rafieian-Kopaei, M. (2014). Anethum graveolens and hyperlipidemia: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences : The Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 19(8), 758–761.
In this double blind randomized clinical trial of 41 patients with type 2 diabetes, 3g a day of sumac powder over 3 months significantly reduced blood sugar levels. From: Shidfar, F., Rahideh, S. T., Rajab, A., Khandozi, N., Hosseini, S., Shidfar, S., & Mojab, F. (2014). The effect of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) Powder on Serum Glycemic Status, ApoB, ApoA-I and total antioxidant capacity in type 2 diabetic patients. Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research: IJPR, 13(4), 1249.
In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 88 diabetic patients, 3g of ginger powder a day for 8 weeks improved insulin resistence and glycemic indices. From: Mozaffari-Khosravi, H., Talaei, B., Jalali, B. A., Najarzadeh, A., & Mozayan, M. R. (2014). The effect of ginger powder supplementation on insulin resistance and glycemic indices in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Complementary therapies in medicine, 22(1), 9-16.
In a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial, with 64 type 2 diabetic patients, 2g of ginger a day for 2 months improved insulin sensitivity and components of the lipid profile. From: Mahluji, S., Attari, V. E., Mobasseri, M., Payahoo, L., Ostadrahimi, A., & Golzari, S. E. (2013). Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on plasma glucose level, HbA1c and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 64(6), 682-686.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 41 type 2 diabetic patients, 2g of ginger powder a day for 12 weeks significantly reduced fasting blood sugar levels. From: Khandouzi, Nafiseh, et al. “The effects of ginger on fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin a1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein aI and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetic patients.” Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research: IJPR 14.1 (2015): 131.
Type 2 diabetic patients were given aloe gel with results of lower blood sugar and lower cholesterol levels. From: Huseini, H. F., Kianbakht, S., Hajiaghaee, R., & Dabaghian, F. H. (2012). Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypercholesterolemic effects of Aloe vera leaf gel in hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Planta medica, 78(04), 311-316.
In a study of 48 pateints with type 2 diabetes, 15g of fenugreek seed taken daily for 8 weeks reduced biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. From: Tavakoly, R., Maracy, M. R., Karimifar, M., & Entezari, M. H. (2018). Does fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seed improve inflammation, and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus? A parallel group randomized clinical trial. European Journal of Integrative Medicine.
In a review of 18 randomized clinical trials, it was concluded that cinnamon can reduce blood sugar levels in diabetic patients, but less heterogenious research studies are needed. From: Namazi, N., Khodamoradi, K., Khamechi, S. P., Heshmati, J., Ayati, M. H., & Larijani, B. (2019). The impact of Cinnamon on anthropometric indices and glycemic status in patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trial. Complementary therapies in medicine.
A total of 58 patients with type two diabetes received 2g of cinnamon a day for 12 weeks, which significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures as well as blood glucose levels. From: Akilen, R., Tsiami, A., Devendra, D., & Robinson, N. (2010). Glycated haemoglobin and blood pressure‐lowering effect of cinnamon in multi‐ethnic Type 2 diabetic patients in the UK: a randomized, placebo‐controlled, double‐blind clinical trial. Diabetic Medicine, 27(10), 1159-1167.
A 12 week study with 25 patients with diabetic neuropathy showed a reduction in pain with the topical use of a a patch containing capsaicin. From: Webster, L. R., Peppin, J. F., Murphy, F. T., Lu, B., Tobias, J. K., & Vanhove, G. F. (2011). Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of NGX-4010, capsaicin 8% patch, in an open-label study of patients with peripheral neuropathic pain. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 93(2), 187-197.
In a study of 72 patients with type 2 diabetes that were not on insulin, 3g of cinnamon taken a day for 4 months reduced fasting plasma glucose levels. From: From: Ponce-Macotela, M., Navarro-Alegria, I., Martinez-Gordillo, M. N., & Alvarez-Chacon, R. (1993). In vitro effect against Giardia of 14 plant extracts. Revista de investigacion clinica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutricion, 46(5), 343-347.
Taking apple cider vinegar reduced gastric emptying in diabetic patients. From: Hlebowicz, J., Darwiche, G., Björgell, O., & Almér, L. O. (2007). Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study. BMC gastroenterology, 7(1), 46.
In a randomized study of 137 Chinese patients, 250 mg cinnamon capsules taken twice a day for 2 months caused a reduction in glucose, inslulin, and cholesterol levels. From: Anderson, R. A., Zhan, Z., Luo, R., Guo, X., Guo, Q., Zhou, J., … & Stoecker, B. J. (2016). Cinnamon extract lowers glucose, insulin and cholesterol in people with elevated serum glucose. Journal of traditional and complementary medicine, 6(4), 332-336.
In a randomized crossover trial of about 40 healthy adults, taking vinegar with a meal containing carbohydrates reduced postprandial glycemia. From: Johnston, C. S., Steplewska, I., Long, C. A., Harris, L. N., & Ryals, R. H. (2010). Examination of the antiglycemic properties of vinegar in healthy adults. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 56(1), 74-79.
Antiglycemic actions of vinegar were reviewed. From: Johnston, C. S., & Gaas, C. A. (2006). Vinegar: medicinal uses and antiglycemic effect. Medscape General Medicine, 8(2), 61.
In patients with pre-diabetes, an aloe product significantly improved glycemic control. From: Devaraj, S., Jialal, R., Jialal, I., & Rockwood, J. (2008). A pilot randomized placebo controlled trial of 2 Aloe vera supplements in patients with pre-diabetes/metabolic syndrome. Planta Medica, 74(09), SL77.
In a study of 50 patients ages 40 – 60 with type 2 diabetes, blood sugar and blood lipid levels were reduced with a fenugreek supplement. From: Kumar, K., Kumar, S., Datta, A., & Bandyopadhyay, A. (2015). Effect of fenugreek seeds on glycemia and dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Med Sci Public Health, 4(7), 997-1000.
A supplement of fenugreek seeds and furostanolic saponins taken over 90 days in this double blind study, safely reduced blood sugar levels in 152 patients with type 2 diabetes. From: Verma, N., Usman, K., Patel, N., Jain, A., Dhakre, S., Swaroop, A., … & Bagchi, D. (2016). A multicenter clinical study to determine the efficacy of a novel fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum) extract (Fenfuro™) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Food & nutrition research, 60(1), 32382.
The study identified phytosterols derived from aloe vera gel as having a long-term blood glucose level control effect and useful for treating type 2 diabetes. From: Tanaka, M., Misawa, E., Ito, Y., Habara, N., Nomaguchi, K., Yamada, M., … & Higuchi, R. (2006). Identification of five phytosterols from Aloe vera gel as anti-diabetic compounds. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 29
Research on the anti-diabetic effect of rosmarinic acid from rosemary is reviewed. From:Ngo, Y. L., Lau, C. H., & Chua, L. S. (2018). Review on rosmarinic acid extraction, fractionation and its anti-diabetic potential. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 121, 687-700.
Flaxseed at a dose of 40 g was effective as an oral estrogen-progesterone to improve mild menopausal symptoms and lower glucose and insulin levels in hypercholesterolemic menopausal women. From: Lemay, A., Dodin, S., Kadri, N., Jacques, H., & Forest, J. C. (2002). Flaxseed dietary supplement versus hormone replacement therapy in hypercholesterolemic menopausal women. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 100(3), 495-504.
Flaxseed intake decreased glucose and insulin as well as insulin sensitivity a in overweight patients. From: Hutchins, A. M., Brown, B. D., Cunnane, S. C., Domitrovich, S. G., Adams, E. R., & Bobowiec, C. E. (2013). Daily flaxseed consumption improves glycemic control in obese men and women with pre-diabetes: a randomized study. Nutrition research, 33(5), 367-375.
An herbal supplement of Terminalia chebula (black myrobalan) fruit extract, Commiphora mukul (mukul myrrh), and Commiphora myrrha (myrrh) oleo-gum-resin was taken daily for three months by women with type two diabetes. Results showed reduced sugar and lipid levels. From: Shokoohi, R., Kianbakht, S., Faramarzi, M., Rahmanian, M., Nabati, F., Mehrzadi, S., & Huseini, H. F. (2017). Effects of an Herbal Combination on Glycemic Control and Lipid Profile in Diabetic Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 22(4), 798-804.
Tea made from guarumo (Cecropia obtusifolia) as slightly from horehound (Marrubium vulgare) reduced blood sugar levels and serup lipids in diabetic patients. From: Herrera-Arellano, A., Aguilar-Santamaria, L., Garcia-Hernandez, B., Nicasio-Torres, P., & Tortoriello, J. (2004). Clinical trial of Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare leaf extracts on blood glucose and serum lipids in type 2 diabetics. Phytomedicine, 11(7), 561-566.
Sixteen volunteers with type 2 diabetes were given food high in beta glucans (oats), which predictably reduces their glycemic index. From: Jenkins, A. L., Jenkins, D. J. A., Zdravkovic, U., Wursch, P., & Vuksan, V. (2002). Depression of the glycemic index by high levels of beta-glucan fiber in two functional foods tested in type 2 diabetes. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56(7), 622.
Noni juice had an antidiabetic effect in diabetic rats. From: Horsfal, A. U., Olabiyi, O. A., Osinubi, A. A., Noronha, C. C., & Okanlawon, A. O. (2008). Anti diabetic effect of fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Tahitian Noni Juice®) on experimentally induced diabetic rats. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences, 7(2), 34-37.
Ashwagandha extracts taken for 10 days reduced elevated plasma glucose, insulin, and cortisol levels, and alterations in adrenal gland and spleen weights of diabetic animals. From: K Thakur, A., Dey, A., S Chatterjee, S., & Kumar, V. (2015). Reverse Ayurvedic pharmacology of Ashwagandha as an adaptogenic anti-diabetic plant: a pilot study. Current Traditional Medicine, 1(1), 51-61.
In this ethnobotanical study of plant use in Morocco, rosemary has been used to treat both hypertension and diabetes. From: Tahraoui, A., El-Hilaly, J., Israili, Z. H., & Lyoussi, B. (2007). Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province). Journal of ethnopharmacology, 110(1), 105-117.
Inula racemosa, Boerhaavia diffusa and Ocimum sanctum exhibited antiperoxidative, hypoglycemic and cortisol lowering activities; it is suggested that these three plant extracts may potentially regulate corticosteroid induced diabetes. From: Gholap, S., & Kar, A. (2004). Hypoglycaemic effects of some plant extracts are possibly mediated through inhibition in corticosteroid concentration. Die Pharmazie-An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 59(11), 876-878.
C. nobile extract exhibits a significant hypoglycemic effect in rats. From: Eddouks, M., Lemhadri, A., Zeggwagh, N. A., & Michel, J. B. (2005). Potent hypoglycaemic activity of the aqueous extract of Chamaemelum nobile in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 67(3), 189-195.
Extracts of cloves, ground Jamaican allspice, and cinnamon showed the strong antidiabetic activity in vitro, likely due to phenolic content. Other potent herbs tested included sage, marjoram, tarragon, and rosemary. From: Dearlove, R. P., Greenspan, P., Hartle, D. K., Swanson, R. B., & Hargrove, J. L. (2008). Inhibition of protein glycation by extracts of culinary herbs and spices. Journal of medicinal food, 11(2), 275-281.
Oregano, rosemary, clove, and other plants showed positive glycation inhibitory and antioxidative activities that could be useful in treating diabetes. From: Kim, H. Y., & Kim, K. (2003). Protein glycation inhibitory and antioxidative activities of some plant extracts in vitro. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 51(6), 1586-1591.
Oregano, rosemary, and lemon balm showed in vitro action that might be useful in treating diabetes and hypertension. From: Kwon, Y. I. I., Vattem, D. A., & Shetty, K. (2006). Evaluation of clonal herbs of Lamiaceae species for management of diabetes and hypertension. Asia pacific journal of clinical nutrition, 15(1), 107-118.
Extracts of O. vulgare had an anti-hyperglycaemic effect in rats without affecting basal plasma insulin levels. From: Lemhadri, A., Zeggwagh, N. A., Maghrani, M., Jouad, H., & Eddouks, M. (2004). Anti-hyperglycaemic activity of the aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare growing wild in Tafilalet region. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 92(2), 251-256.
Different combinations of essential oils including fenugreek, cinnamon, cumin, and oregano, were studied for their ability to lower blood glucose levels. From: Talpur, N., Echard, B., Ingram, C., Bagchi, D., & Preuss, H. (2005). Effects of a novel formulation of essential oils on glucose–insulin metabolism in diabetic and hypertensive rats: a pilot study. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 7(2), 193-199.
Cinnamon was the most bioactive for improving glucose and insulin metabolism followed by witch hazel, green and black teas, allspice, bay leaves, nutmeg, cloves, mushrooms, and brewer’s yeast. Phenols were likely the active constituent of cinnamon, tea, witch hazel, cloves, bay, and all spice. From: Broadhurst, C. L., Polansky, M. M., & Anderson, R. A. (2000). Insulin-like biological activity of culinary and medicinal plant aqueous extracts in vitro. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(3), 849-852.
Extract from R. officinalis had a hyperglycemic and insulin release inhibitory effects in rabbits. From: Al-Hader, A. A., Hasan, Z. A., & Aqel, M. B. (1994). Hyperglycemic and insulin release inhibitory effects of Rosmarinus officinalis. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 43(3), 217-221.
Likely related to its potent antioxidant properties, Rosmarinus officinalis extract had remarkable antidiabetogenic results in rabbits. From: Bakırel, T., Bakırel, U., Keleş, O. Ü., Ülgen, S. G., & Yardibi, H. (2008). In vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 116(1), 64-73.
Rosemary extract showed antiglycation-related abilities. From: Hsieh, C. L., Peng, C. H., Chyau, C. C., Lin, Y. C., Wang, H. E., & Peng, R. Y. (2007). Low-density lipoprotein, collagen, and thrombin models reveal that Rosemarinus officinalis L. exhibits potent antiglycative effects. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 55(8), 2884-2891.
Goji berry and yellow dock supplements given to diabetic rats reduced blood sugar levels. From: Muselin, F., Brezovan, D., Savici, J., Cristina, R. T., Dumitrescu, E., Doma, A. O., … & Trif, A. (2015). The Use of Yellow Dock (Rumex crispus L.) and Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum L.) in Alloxan Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats. Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 48(1), 373-376.
Root extract from burdock had an antidiabetic effect in diabetic rats. From: Cao, J., Li, C., Zhang, P., Cao, X., Huang, T., Bai, Y., & Chen, K. (2012). Antidiabetic effect of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) root ethanolic extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(37), 9079.
In mice, plants of the Malvaceae family as well as Plantago asiatica showed strong hypoglycemic activity. From: Tomoda, M., Shimizu, N., Oshima, Y., Takahashi, M., Murakami, M., & Hikino, H. (1987). Hypoglycemic activity of twenty plant mucilages and three modified products. Planta medica, 53(01), 8-12.
Carnosic acid and carnosol constituents from rosemary and sage had a blood sugar lowering effect. From: Rau, O., Wurglics, M., Paulke, A., Zitzkowski, J., Meindl, N., Bock, A., … & Schubert-Zsilavecz, M. (2006). Carnosic acid and carnosol, phenolic diterpene compounds of the labiate herbs rosemary and sage, are activators of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Planta medica, 72(10), 881-887.
Glucose tolerance improved with an aloe vera supplement in subjects with prediabetes. From: Devaraj, S., Yimam, M., Brownell, L. A., Jialal, I., Singh, S., & Jia, Q. (2013). Effects of Aloe vera supplementation in subjects with prediabetes/metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome and related disorders, 11(1), 35-40.
Taking an aloe supplement improved glycaemic control in those with prediabetes. From: Suksomboon, N., Poolsup, N., & Punthanitisarn, S. (2016). Effect of Aloe vera on glycaemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics, 41(2), 180-188.
Aloe reduced blood sugar levels in rats with type 2 diabetes. From: Okyar, A., Can, A., Akev, N., Baktir, G., & Sütlüpinar, N. (2001). Effect of Aloe vera leaves on blood glucose level in type I and type II diabetic rat models. Phytotherapy Research, 15(2), 157-161.
Blood sugar and cholesterol levels were reduced in diabetic rats with the intake of aloe gel. From: Rajasekaran, S., Ravi, K., Sivagnanam, K., & Subramanian, S. (2006). Beneficial effects of Aloe vera leaf gel extract on lipid profile status in rats with streptozotocin diabetes. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 33(3), 232-237.
In mice, aloe ingestion reduced obesity-induced glucose tolerance by suppressing inflammatory responses and inducing anti-inflammatory cytokines to improve insulin resistance. From: Shin, E., Shim, K. S., Kong, H., Lee, S., Shin, S., Kwon, J., … & Kim, K. (2011). Dietary aloe improves insulin sensitivity via the suppression of obesity-induced inflammation in obese mice. Immune network, 11(1), 59-67.
Licorice extract was effective in reducing diabetes, abdominal obesity and hypertension in obese mice. From: Mae, T., Kishida, H., Nishiyama, T., Tsukagawa, M., Konishi, E., Kuroda, M., … & Nakagawa, K. (2003). A licorice ethanolic extract with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ligand-binding activity affects diabetes in KK-Ay mice, abdominal obesity in diet-induced obese C57BL mice and hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. The Journal of nutrition, 133(11), 3369-3377.
Baicalin and licorice reduced RBC sorbitol levels in diabetic rats. From: Zhou, Y. P., & Zhang, J. Q. (1989). Oral baicalin and liquid extract of licorice reduce sorbitol levels in red blood cell of diabetic rats. Chinese medical journal, 102(3), 203-206.
Type 2 diabetes was found to be associated with oxidative stress and that flaxseed phytoestrogens reduced these in rats. From: Prasad, K. (2001). Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside from flaxseed delays the development of type 2 diabetes in Zucker rat. Journal of laboratory and clinical medicine, 138(1), 32-39.
Juniper berries reduced glucose levels in rats. From: de Medina, F. S., Gamez, M. J., Jimenez, I., Jimenez, J., Osuna, J. I., & Zarzuelo, A. (1994). Hypoglycemic activity of juniper “berries”. Planta Medica, 60(03), 197-200.
The study shows that both oleuropein and oleanolic acid are involved in the anti-diabetic effect of olive leaves. From: Sato, H., Genet, C., Strehle, A., Thomas, C., Lobstein, A., Wagner, A., … & Saladin, R. (2007). Anti-hyperglycemic activity of a TGR5 agonist isolated from Olea europaea. Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 362(4), 793-798.
Oleuropein inhibiting hyperglycemia and oxidative stress induced by diabetes in rabbits. From: Al-Azzawie, H. F., & Alhamdani, M. S. S. (2006). Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect of oleuropein in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. Life sciences, 78(12), 1371-1377.
Two major phenolics from mung bean extract: vitexin and isovitexin showed significant inhibitory activities against the formation of glucose. From: Peng, X., Zheng, Z., Cheng, K. W., Shan, F., Ren, G. X., Chen, F., & Wang, M. (2008). Inhibitory effect of mung bean extract and its constituents vitexin and isovitexin on the formation of advanced glycation endproducts. Food Chemistry, 106(2), 475-481.
Vitexin and isovitexin from Ficus deltoidea reduced the blood glucose levels in rodents without toxicity at a dose of 2 g per kg. From: Choo, C. Y., Sulong, N. Y., Man, F., & Wong, T. W. (2012). Vitexin and isovitexin from the Leaves of Ficus deltoidea with in-vivo α-glucosidase inhibition. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 142(3), 776-781.
Tea preparations from the following plants showed in vitro antidiabetic, antioxidant activities: green tea, peppermint, black, thyme, olive leaf, sage, absinthium, blackberry, and roselle. From: Büyükbalci, A., & El, S. N. (2008). Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects, antioxidant activities and phenol contents of some herbal teas. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 63(1), 27-33.
M. vulgare significantly reduced blood glucose levels and cholesterol levels in diabetic rats. From: Elberry, A. A., Harraz, F. M., Ghareib, S. A., Gabr, S. A., Nagy, A. A., & Abdel-Sattar, E. (2015). Methanolic extract of Marrubium vulgare ameliorates hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. International Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 3(1), 37-44.
Horehound extracts had a significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic in diabetic rats. From: Boudjelal, A., Henchiri, C., Siracusa, L., Sari, M., & Ruberto, G. (2012). Compositional analysis and in vivo anti-diabetic activity of wild Algerian Marrubium vulgare L. infusion. Fitoterapia, 83(2), 286-292.
Fifty plants were tested and the flower buds of Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot) showed the highest maltase inhibitory activityin vitro, which could be useful in treating diabetes. From: Gao, H., Huang, Y. N., Gao, B., Xu, P. Y., Inagaki, C., & Kawabata, J. (2008). α-Glucosidase inhibitory effect by the flower buds of Tussilago farfara L. Food chemistry, 106(3), 1195-1201.
The sesquiterpenoid tussilagone from the flowers of coltsfoot showed potential in invitro testing for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes. From: Park, H. R., Yoo, M. Y., Seo, J. H., Kim, I. S., Kim, N. Y., Kang, J. Y., … & Lee, H. S. (2008). Sesquiterpenoids isolated from the flower buds of Tussilago farfara L. inhibit diacylglycerol acyltransferase. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 56(22), 10493-10497.
Extract of Passiflora incarnata showed significant anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in diabetic mice. Gupta, R. K., Kumar, D., Chaudhary, A. K., Maithani, M., & Singh, R. (2012). Antidiabetic activity of Passiflora incarnata Linn. in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 139(3), 801-806.
This paper provided a summary of research for the use of dill in treating diabetes. From: Goodarzi, M. T., Khodadadi, I., Tavilani, H., & Abbasi Oshaghi, E. (2016). The Role of Anethum graveolens L. (Dill) in the Management of Diabetes. Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2016, 1098916.
Elderberries have shown in research to help boost immunity, aid in cardiac health, improve blood sugar levels, and have beneficial antioxidant activities. From: Sidor, A., & Gramza-Michałowska, A. (2015). Advanced research on the antioxidant and health benefit of elderberry (Sambucus nigra) in food–a review. Journal of functional foods, 18, 941-958.
Nutmeg demonstrated significant blood sugar lowering in diabetic rats. From: Somani, R. S., & Singhai, A. K. (2008). Hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic activities of seeds of Myristica fragrans in normoglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Asian J. Exp. Sci, 22(1), 95-102.
Leaves from mullein had an anti-diabetic effect in rats. From: Pothamsetty, A., Janarthan, M., & Faheemuddin, M. (2017). Evaluation of Anti-Diabetic Activity of the Plant Leaves of Verbascum thapsus in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats. Int J Pharm Pharmacol 2017; 1, 118.
Lemongrass extracts safely reduced fasting plasma glucose levels in rats. From: Adeneye, A. A., & Agbaje, E. O. (2007). Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of fresh leaf aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. in rats. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 112(3), 440-444.
Saponins and phenolic constituents from the cones and seeds of Cupressus sempervirensdemonstrated antidiabetic activity in vitro.From: Boussoussa, H., Khacheba, I., Berramdane, T., Maamri, A., Bendahgane, H., & Yousfi, M. (2018). In vitro Antidiabetic Effect of Saponins and Phenolic Extracts from Fruits and Seeds of Algerian Cypress Tree: Cupressus sempervirens L. Current Enzyme Inhibition, 14(2), 92-96.
In a review of research grapefruit and its component, naringin has shown antioxidant, lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, cardiac protective, and anti-obesity effects. From: Razavi, B. M., & Hosseinzadeh, H. (2019). A Review of the Effects of Citrus paradisi (Grapefruit) and Its Flavonoids, Naringin, and Naringenin in Metabolic Syndrome. In Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Diabetes (pp. 515-543). Academic Press.
In this randomized controlled clinical trial with 37 patients who had metabolic syndrome, the treatment group received 2g of ginger powder a day for 12 weeks. Cholesterol, blood sugar, weight, blood pressure, and overall energy levels were significantly improved in the treatment group. From: Rahimlou, M., Yari, Z., Rayyani, E., Keshavarz, S. A., Hosseini, S., Morshedzadeh, N., & Hekmatdoost, A. (2019). Effects of ginger supplementation on anthropometric, glycemic and metabolic parameters in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 1-7.
In a thorough review of research, including in vitro, in vivo, and 10 human studies, the author concluded ginger and its constituents have a beneficial effect against obesity and metabolic syndrome disorders like diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and high blood pressure. From: Wang, J., Ke, W., Bao, R., Hu, X., & Chen, F. (2017). Beneficial effects of ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity and metabolic syndrome: a review. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1398(1), 83-98.
In a review of research, flavone glycosides (naringin, hesperidin, and diosmin) found in citrus fruit have an anti-diabetic effect. From: Srinivasan, S., Vinothkumar, V., & Murali, R. (2019). Antidiabetic Efficacy of Citrus Fruits With Special Allusion to Flavone Glycosides. In Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Diabetes (pp. 335-346). Academic Press.
Flavonoids of Litsea coreana reduced blood glucose levels in vivo. From: Sun, Y. X., Lu, Y. X., & Wang, L. Y. (2010). Study on the mechanism of action of total flavonoids of Litsea coreana for reducing blood glucose level in rat with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi= Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine, 30(6), 617-621.
Juniper berry, heartwood, and leaf extracts and essential oils of various species had significant hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities in vitro. From: Orhan, N. (2019). Juniperus Species: Features, Profile and Applications to Diabetes. In Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Diabetes (pp. 447-459). Academic Press.
A coriander seed supplement was hypoglycemic and antioxidant in rodents. From: Deepa, B., & Anuradha, C. V. (2011). Antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum L. seed extract.
Ten patients with type 2 diabetes who took extracts of coriander for 14 days showed reduced blood sugar levels. From: Waheed, A. K. B. A. R., Miana, G. A., Ahmad, S. I., & Khan, M. A. (2006). Clinical investigation of hypoglycemic effect of Coriandrum sativum in type-2 (NIDDM) diabetic patients. Pakistan Journal of Pharmacology, 23(1), 7-11.