The listings of research below represent a compilation of scientific articles found on the topic, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. This compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use of any herb listed.
A review of research showed that four major water-soluble fibers: β-glucan, psyllium, pectin and guar gum, effectively lowered serum LDL cholesterol levels, without affecting HDL cholesterol or triacylglycerol concentrations. From: Theuwissen, E., & Mensink, R. P. (2008). Water-soluble dietary fibers and cardiovascular disease. Physiology & behavior, 94(2), 285-292.
In a meta review of trials, drinking green tea lowered cholesterol levels in overweight people. From: Yuan, F., Dong, H., Fang, K., Gong, J., & Lu, F. (2018). Effects of green tea on lipid metabolism in overweight or obese people: A meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials. Molecular nutrition & food research, 62(1), 1601122.
In a review of 10 randomized controlled trials, cinnamon taken over a period of 4-16 weeks reduced blood sugar and cholesterol levels. From: Allen, R. W., Schwartzman, E., Baker, W. L., Coleman, C. I., & Phung, O. J. (2013). Cinnamon use in type 2 diabetes: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. The Annals of Family Medicine, 11(5), 452-459.
In a study with 58 hyperlipidemic patients, 3000 mg of Melissa leaf powder taken daily for two months significantly reduced LDL cholesterol compared to the placebo group. From: Jandaghi, P., Noroozi, M., Ardalani, H., & Alipour, M. (2016). Lemon balm: A promising herbal therapy for patients with borderline hyperlipidemia—A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Complementary therapies in medicine, 26, 136-140.
In this double blind clinical trial of 80 patients with type 2 diabetes, intake of sage significantly reduced blood sugar and cholesterol levels. From: Behradmanesh, S., Derees, F., & Rafieian-kopaei, M. (2013). Effect of Salvia officinalis on diabetic patients. Journal of renal injury prevention, 2(2), 51.
In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical with 70 type 2 diabetic patients, taking 1600 mg of ginger daily for 12 weeks reduced fasting glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and inflammatory markers significantly. From: Arablou, T., Aryaeian, N., Valizadeh, M., Sharifi, F., Hosseini, A., & Djalali, M. (2014). The effect of ginger consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and some inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 65(4), 515-520.
In a study of 140 patients with type 2 diabetes, patients who took cinnamon over 3 months showed an improvement in blood sugar and cholesteral levels, especially in those patients with a high BMI. From: Zare, R., Nadjarzadeh, A., Zarshenas, M. M., Shams, M., & Heydari, M. (2018). Efficacy of cinnamon in patients with type II diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Clinical Nutrition.
In a randomized placebo controlled trial of 62 patients with type 2 diabetes, taking a Melissa officinalis extract of 700 mg twice a day for 12 weeks improved lipid profile and glycemic measurements. From: Asadi, A., Shidfar, F., Safari, M., Hosseini, A. F., Fallah Huseini, H., Heidari, I., & Rajab, A. (2019). Efficacy of Melissa officinalis L.(lemon balm) extract on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, double‐blind, clinical trial. Phytotherapy research, 33(3), 651-659.
In a study of 30 young overweight participants, 250 mg twice a day for 8 weeks of a basil supplement resulted in improved insulin, cholesterol, and body weight levels. From: Satapathy, S., Das, N., Bandyopadhyay, D., Mahapatra, S. C., Sahu, D. S., & Meda, M. (2017). Effect of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) supplementation on metabolic parameters and liver enzymes in young overweight and obese subjects. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 32(3), 357-363.
In this double-blind randomized clinical trail with 65 hyperlipidemic patients, taking a dill pearl for one month reduced lipids compared to the placebo. From: Kazemi, T., PANAHI, S. H., KASHANIAN, M., HOSSAINI, F. M., DARABI, M., & AKBARI, H. (2005). Effect of Dill pearl on serum lipids.
42 healthy males who took a goji berry polysaccharide supplement for 4 weeks showed reduced blood sugar and cholesterol levels. From: Xia, H., Tang, H., Wang, F., Yang, X., Wang, Z., Liu, H., … & Sun, G. (2018). Metabolic effects of dietary supplementation of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on serum and urine metabolomics in a young healthy male population. Journal of Functional Foods, 46, 440-448.
In this triple-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial with 140 patients with type II diabetes, the group who took 500 mg of cinnamon bark powder taken twice daily for 3 months reduced body fat, insulin resistance, and cholesterol levels. From: Zare, R., Nadjarzadeh, A., Zarshenas, M. M., Shams, M., & Heydari, M. (2019). Efficacy of cinnamon in patients with type II diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Clinical Nutrition, 38(2), 549-556.
In a study with 90 diabetic males, tulsi and neem leaves taken as a powder helped to reduce diabetic symptoms. From: Kochhar, A., Sharma, N., & Sachdeva, R. (2009). Effect of supplementation of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder on diabetic symptoms, anthropometric parameters and blood pressure of non insulin dependent male diabetics. Studies on Ethno-Medicine, 3(1), 5-9.
In a study with 400 diabetic patients, Mangifera indica, Murraya koenigii, Ocimum santum, Phyllanthus amarus, Allium cep and Azadirachta indica had an anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effect. From: Dineshkumar, B., Analava, M., & Manjunatha, M. (2010). Antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effects of few common plants extract in type 2 diabetic patients at Bengal. International Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism, 18(2), 59-65.
In a study with fifty diabetic patients, the treatment group took 10 g/100 mL boiling watera twice a day for 4 weeks of a chamomile infusion, resulting in significantly lowered cholesterol and blood sugar levels. From: Kaseb, F., Yazdanpanah, Z., Biregani, A. N., Yazdi, N. B., & Yazdanpanah, Z. (2018). The effect of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) infusion on blood glucose, lipid profile and kidney function in Type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized clinical trial. Progress in Nutrition, 20(1-S), 110-118.
In a study of 158 pregnant women with gestational diabetes, intake of goji berries improved cholesterol levels. From: Yang, S., Si, L., Fan, L., Jian, W., Pei, H., & Lin, R. (2018). Polysaccharide IV from Lycium barbarum L. Improves Lipid Profiles of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus of Pregnancy by Upregulating ABCA1 and Downregulating Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Transcription 1 via miR-33. Frontiers in endocrinology, 9, 49.
In this randomized double blind placebo controled study with 22 healthy adults, taking 300 mg of tulsi leaves daily for 4 weeks reduced lipid profile. From: Mondal, S., Mirdha, B., Padhi, M., & Mahapatra, S. (2012). Dried leaf extract of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors: results of a double blinded randomized controlled trial in healthy volunteers. Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 1(4), 177-181.
In a study with 100 adults, taking a tulsi supplement (5 mL 2 times a day for 3 months) reduced blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid profile. From: Devra, D. K., Mathur, K. C., Agrawal, R. P., Bhadu, I., Goyal, S., & Agarwal, V. (2012). Effect of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) on clinical and biochemical parameters of metabolic syndrome. Journal of Natural Remedies, 12(1), 63-67.
In a study of 237 patients with hyperlipemia, both cholesterol and blood sugar levels were reduced with the intake of a bergamot extract daily for 30 days. Further, it may be an effective supplement in combating hyperlipemic and hyperglycaemic disorders. From: Mollace, V., Sacco, I., Janda, E., Malara, C., Ventrice, D., Colica, C., … & Rotiroti, D. (2011). Hypolipemic and hypoglycaemic activity of bergamot polyphenols: from animal models to human studies. Fitoterapia, 82(3), 309-316.
In a study of 60 women with polycystic ovary syndrome, taking a flaxseed omega-3 supplement twice daily for 12 weeks improved insulin metabolism and cholesterol levels with little effect on hormone levels and lipid levels. From: Mirmasoumi, G., Fazilati, M., Foroozanfard, F., Vahedpoor, Z., Mahmoodi, S., Taghizadeh, M., … & Asemi, Z. (2018). The Effects of flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on metabolic status of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes, 126(04), 222-228.
In a randomized double-blinded controlled stud with 37 diabetic patients, 1,000 mg a day for three months of a Melissa officinalis extract significantly reduced serum triglyceride levels. From: Nayebi, N., Esteghamati, A., Meysamie, A., Khalili, N., Kamalinejad, M., Emtiazy, M., & Hashempur, M. H. (2019). The effects of a Melissa officinalis L. based product on metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized double-blinded controlled clinical trial. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine.
A double blind randomized controlled study with 84 overweight women showed serum lipid levels reduce with the use of a cinnamon supplement. From: Borzoei, A., Rafraf, M., Niromanesh, S., Farzadi, L., Narimani, F., & Doostan, F. (2018). Effects of cinnamon supplementation on antioxidant status and serum lipids in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Journal of traditional and complementary medicine, 8(1), 128-133.
In a double blind randomized study with 84 overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome, taking a 1500 mg of cinnamon daily for 8 weeks improved antioxidant, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, all risk factors in the disease. From: Borzoei, A., Rafraf, M., Niromanesh, S., Farzadi, L., Narimani, F., & Doostan, F. (2018). Effects of cinnamon supplementation on antioxidant status and serum lipids in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Journal of traditional and complementary medicine, 8(1), 128-133.
In a randomized placebo controlled study of 40 patients with high cholesterol and type 2 diabetes, intake of a 500 mg sage extract daily for three months lowered cholesterol and blood sugar levels. From: Kianbakht, S., & Dabaghian, F. H. (2013). Improved glycemic control and lipid profile in hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients consuming Salvia officinalis L. leaf extract: a randomized placebo. Controlled clinical trial. Complementary therapies in medicine, 21(5), 441-446.
In a pilot study of healthy females, drinking 300 mL of sage tea twice a day for 4 weeks reduced cholesterol and LDL. From: Sá, C. M., Ramos, A. A., Azevedo, M. F., Lima, C. F., Fernandes-Ferreira, M., & Pereira-Wilson, C. (2009). Sage tea drinking improves lipid profile and antioxidant defences in humans. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 10(9), 3937-3950.
An herbal supplement of Terminalia chebula (black myrobalan) fruit extract, Commiphora mukul (mukul myrrh), and Commiphora myrrha (myrrh) oleo-gum-resin was taken daily for three months by women with type two diabetes. Results showed reduced sugar and lipid levels. From: Shokoohi, R., Kianbakht, S., Faramarzi, M., Rahmanian, M., Nabati, F., Mehrzadi, S., & Huseini, H. F. (2017). Effects of an Herbal Combination on Glycemic Control and Lipid Profile in Diabetic Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 22(4), 798-804.
In a study of 60 patients with diabetic neuropathy, taking an omega-3 flaxseed supplement for 12 weeks significantly reduced serum insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. From:Soleimani, A., Taghizadeh, M., Bahmani, F., Badroj, N., & Asemi, Z. (2017). Metabolic response to omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with diabetic nephropathy: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition, 36(1), 79-84.
In a review of human studies, chia seeds were shown to help reduce LDL cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, and diastolic blood pressure. However, further high quality human studies are needed. From: Teoh, S. L., Lai, N. M., Vanichkulpitak, P., Vuksan, V., Ho, H., & Chaiyakunapruk, N. (2018). Clinical evidence on dietary supplementation with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition reviews, 76(4), 219-242.
In a small study of 10 overweight adults who took 100 grams of acai pulp twice a day for a month, cholesterol and glucose levels were reduced. From: Udani, J. K., Singh, B. B., Singh, V. J., & Barrett, M. L. (2011). Effects of Acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry preparation on metabolic parameters in a healthy overweight population: a pilot study. Nutrition journal, 10(1), 45.
Anthocyanin rich berries are important part of a health diet, offering improvement in LDL cholesterol, lipid peroxidation, total plasma antioxidant capacity, dyslipidemia, and glucose metabolism. From: Basu, A., Rhone, M., & Lyons, T. J. (2010). Berries: emerging impact on cardiovascular health. Nutrition reviews, 68(3), 168-177.
In a study of 31 pre-hypertensive men, intake of 640 mg of anthocyanin daily over 4 weeks significantly increased the HDL cholesterol levels. From: JHassellund, S. S., Flaa, A., Kjeldsen, S. E., Seljeflot, I., Karlsen, A., Erlund, I., & Rostrup, M. (2013). Effects of anthocyanins on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation in pre-hypertensive men: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled crossover study. Journal of human hypertension, 27(2), 100.
A total of 13 randomized trials with 750 patients showed cinnamon significantly reduced blood triglycerides and total cholesterol concentrations without a significant effect on LDL and HDL cholesterol. From: Maierean, S. M., Serban, M. C., Sahebkar, A., Ursoniu, S., Serban, A., Penson, P., & Banach, M. (2017). The effects of cinnamon supplementation on blood lipid concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of clinical lipidology, 11(6), 1393-1406.
There is good scientific evidence with multiple studies demonstrating garlic reduces LDL cholesterol over short periods. From: Ulbricht, C. E. (2010). Natural standard herb & supplement guide: an evidence-based reference. Elsevier Mosby.
In a double blind, randomized, placebo controled trial of 61 hyperlipidemic patients, a fenugreek seed supplement taken over 12 weeks significantly reduced blood cholesterol and sugar levels. From: Fedacko, J., Singh, R. B., Niaz, M. A., Ghosh, S., Fedackova, P., Tripathi, A. D., … & Shastun, S. (2016). Fenugreeg Seeds Decrease Blood Cholesterol and Blood Glucose as Adjunct to Diet Therapy in Patients with Hypercholesterolemia. World Heart Journal, 8(3), 239.
Beta-glucan from oats significantly reduced the total and LDL cholesterol levels of 19 hypercholesterolemic subjects. From: Braaten, J. T., Wood, P. J., Scott, F. W., Wolynetz, M. S., Lowe, M. K., Bradley-White, P., & Collins, M. W. (1994). Oat beta-glucan reduces blood cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolemic subjects. European journal of clinical nutrition, 48(7), 465-474
In a double blind randomized placebo controlled study with 24 participants with metabolic syndrome, 12 weeks of taking a dill extract reduced triglyceride levels. From: Mansouri, M., Nayebi, N., Hasani-Ranjbar, S., Taheri, E., & Larijani, B. (2012). The effect of 12 weeks Anethum graveolens (dill) on metabolic markers in patients with metabolic syndrome; a randomized double blind controlled trial. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 20(1), 47.
Seventy-five hypercholesterolemic patients who took oat beta glucan reduced LDL cholesterol compared to the control. From: Queenan, K. M., Stewart, M. L., Smith, K. N., Thomas, W., Fulcher, R. G., & Slavin, J. L. (2007). Concentrated oat β-glucan, a fermentable fiber, lowers serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults in a randomized controlled trial. Nutrition Journal, 6(1), 6.
A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention study was conducted in 44 hypercholesterolemic Japanese men showed ingestion of beta glucan barley reduced LDL cholesterol, visceral fat, and waist circumference. From: Shimizu, C., Kihara, M., Aoe, S., Araki, S., Ito, K., Hayashi, K., … & Ikegami, S. (2008). Effect of high β-glucan barley on serum cholesterol concentrations and visceral fat area in Japanese men—a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Plant foods for human nutrition, 63(1), 21-25.
In a randomized double blind study of 172 patients with high LDL cholesterol, taking 20mg a day of a sumac extract along with statins reduced LDL cholesterol significantly more than with just taking the statins alone. From: Rouhi-Boroujeni, H., Mosharraf, S., Gharipour, M., Asadi-Samani, M., & Rouhi-Boroujeni, H. (2016). Antihyperelipidemic effects of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.): Can sumac strengthen anti-hyperlipidemic effect of statins. Der Pharm Lett, 8(3).
In a study of 91 hyperlipidemic patients, taking dill for two months reduced cholesterol and triglycerides without side effects. From: Mirhosseini, M., Baradaran, A., & Rafieian-Kopaei, M. (2014). Anethum graveolens and hyperlipidemia: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of research in medical sciences: the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 19(8), 758.
In a randomized study of 137 Chinese patients, 250 mg cinnamon capsules taken twice a day for 2 months caused a reduction in glucose, inslulin, and cholesterol levels. From: Anderson, R. A., Zhan, Z., Luo, R., Guo, X., Guo, Q., Zhou, J., … & Stoecker, B. J. (2016). Cinnamon extract lowers glucose, insulin and cholesterol in people with elevated serum glucose. Journal of traditional and complementary medicine, 6(4), 332-336.
Garlic consumption reduced serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in men. From: Adler, A. J., & Holub, B. J. (1997). Effect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 65(2), 445-450.
A dose of 900 mg of garlic powder a day reduced cholesterol levels in men. From: Holzgartner, H., Schmidt, U., & Kuhn, U. (1992). Comparison of the efficacy and tolerance of a garlic preparation vs. bezafibrate. Arzneimittel-Forschung, 42(12), 1473-1477.
Postmenopausal women with a high BMI showed reduced cholesterol when taking supplement of isoflavones from red clover. Chedraui, P., San Miguel, G., Hidalgo, L., Morocho, N., & Ross, S. (2008). Effect of Trifolium pratense-derived isoflavones on the lipid profile of postmenopausal women with increased body mass index. Gynecological Endocrinology, 24(11), 620-624.
In a study of 50 patients ages 40 – 60 with type 2 diabetes, blood sugar and blood lipid levels were reduced with a fenugreek supplement. From: Kumar, K., Kumar, S., Datta, A., & Bandyopadhyay, A. (2015). Effect of fenugreek seeds on glycemia and dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Med Sci Public Health, 4(7), 997-1000.
In a small study, avocado oil helped reduce cholesteral levels, especially in those with mild hypercholesterolemia. From: López, R. L., Frati, A. M., Hernández, B. D., Cervantes, S. M., Hernández, M. L., Juárez, C., & Morán, S. L. (1996). Monounsaturated fatty acid (avocado) rich diet for mild hypercholesterolemia. Archives of medical research, 27(4), 519-523.
A compilation of research showed the following herbs to have a hypolipidemic effect: yarrow, onion, garlic, dill, celery, burdock, oats, barberry, cabbage, chili pepper, safflower, chicory, chickpea, bitter orange, orange, guggul, coriander, cranberry, melon, pumpkin, artichoke, ginseng, eugenol, schelelecht, ginkgo, soy, walnut, apple, nutmeg, red yeast rice, miswak, evening primrose, basil, bulacy, orchis, avocado, plantain, blond plotitago, green bean, purslane, black cherry, pomegranate, milk thistle, brinjal, tomato, tamarind, thea, thyme, fenugreek, bilberry, grape, ginger, and corn. From: Rouhi-Boroujeni, H., Rouhi-Boroujeni, H., Khoddami, M., Khazraei, H. R., Dehkordil, E. B., & Rafieian-Kopaei, M. (2017). Hypolipidemic herbals with diuretic effects: A systematic review. In Biol. Sci (Vol. 8, pp. 21-28).
Isoflavones reduced triglyceride levels in menopausal women. From: Schult, T. M. K., Ensrud, K. E., Blackwell, T., Ettinger, B., Wallace, R., & Tice, J. A. (2004). Effect of isoflavones on lipids and bone turnover markers in menopausal women. Maturitas, 48(3), 209-218.
Red clover phytoestrogens reduced serum lipid levels in postmenopausal women. From: Terzic, M. M., Dotlic, J., Maricic, S., Mihailovic, T., & Tosic‐Race, B. (2009). Influence of red clover‐derived isoflavones on serum lipid profile in postmenopausal women. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 35(6), 1091-1095.
In this study of 57 hyperlipidemic patients who had received coronary bypass surgery, showed a reduction in serum lipid levels by adding grapefruit to their diet. From: Gorinstein, S., Caspi, A., Libman, I., Lerner, H. T., Huang, D., Leontowicz, H., … & Trakhtenberg, S. (2006). Red grapefruit positively influences serum triglyceride level in patients suffering from coronary atherosclerosis: studies in vitro and in humans. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 54(5), 1887-1892.
In a 16 week double blind study of 27 people with risk for coronary heart disease due to hypercholesterolemia, intake of a grapefruit supplement reduced cholesterol levels. From: Cerda, J. J., Robbins, F. L., Burgin, C. W., Baumgartner, T. G., & Rice, R. W. (1988). The effects of grapefruit pectin on patients at risk for coronary heart disease without altering diet or lifestyle. Clinical cardiology, 11(9), 589-594.
Cinnamaldehyde has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in diabetic rats. From: Babu, P. S., Prabuseenivasan, S., & Ignacimuthu, S. (2007). Cinnamaldehyde—a potential antidiabetic agent. Phytomedicine, 14(1), 15-22.
In a study of 19 patients with hyperlipidemia, apple cider vinegar taken over eight weeks reduced blood lipid levels. From: Beheshti, Z., Chan, Y. H., Nia, H. S., Hajihosseini, F., Nazari, R., & Shaabani, M. (2012). Influence of apple cider vinegar on blood lipids. Life Sci J, 9(4), 2431-40.
Eating clove bud may reduce hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in those with a type 2 diabetic condition.From: Adefegha, S. A., Oboh, G., Adefegha, O. M., Boligon, A. A., & Athayde, M. L. (2014). Antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective and antioxidative effects of dietary clove (Szyzgium aromaticum) bud powder in a high‐fat diet/streptozotocin‐induced diabetes rat model. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94(13), 2726-2737.
The study discussed the hypolipidemic action of coriander seeds. From: Chithra, V., & Leelamma, S. (1997). Hypolipidemic effect of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum): mechanism of action. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 51(2), 167-172.
Garlic reduced blood sugar, cholesterol and triglycerides in diabetic rats. From: Thomson, M., Al-Amin, Z. M., Al-Qattan, K. K., Shaban, L. H., & Ali, M. (2007). Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of garlic (Allium sativum) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int J Diabetes & Metabolism, 15, 108-15.
Coriander seed ingestion by rats had a cholesterol lowering effect. From: Dhanapakiam, P., Joseph, J. M., Ramaswamy, V. K., Moorthi, M., & Kumar, A. S. (2007). The cholesterol lowering property of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum): mechanism of action. Journal of Environmental Biology, 29(1), 53.
Garlic reduced blood sugar, cholesterol and triglycerides in diabetic rats. From: Thomson, M., Al-Amin, Z. M., Al-Qattan, K. K., Shaban, L. H., & Ali, M. (2007). Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of garlic (Allium sativum) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int J Diabetes & Metabolism, 15, 108-15.
This review discussed research demonstrating garlic to lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and to change blood lipoproteins and affect coagulation parameters. From: Lau, B. H., Adetumbi, M. A., & Sanchez, A. (1983). Allium sativum (garlic) and atherosclerosis: a review. Nutrition research, 3(1), 119-128.
Consumption of agrimony tea for one month reduced lipid levels and inflammation, and showed antioxidant activity in participants. From: Ivanova, D., Vankova, D., & Nashar, M. (2013). Agrimonia eupatoria tea consumption in relation to markers of inflammation, oxidative status and lipid metabolism in healthy subjects. Archives of physiology and biochemistry, 119(1), 32-37.
Total phenol content of essential oils was related to LDL antioxidant activity associated with cardiac heart disease. Phenols included: methylchavicol, anethol, p-cymen, apiole, cinnamic ether, carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, vanillin, cuminol, and eugenol. From: Teissedre, P. L., & Waterhouse, A. L. (2000). Inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins by phenolic substances in different essential oils varieties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(9), 3801-3805.
Thyme and oregano tea infusions affected LDL in vitro. From: Kulišić, T., Kriško, A., Dragović-Uzelac, V., Miloš, M., & Pifat, G. (2007). The effects of essential oils and aqueous tea infusions of oregano (Origanum vulgare L. spp. hirtum), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) on the copper-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins. International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 58(2), 87-93.
Phytoestrogens including estradiol reduced blood cholesterol levels in rabbits. From: Asgary, S., Moshtaghian, J., Naderi, G., Fatahi, Z., Hosseini, M., Dashti, G., & Adibi, S. (2007). Effects of dietary red clover on blood factors and cardiovascular fatty streak formation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Phytotherapy Research, 21(8), 768-770.
Type 2 diabetic patients were given aloe gel with results of lower blood sugar and lower cholesterol levels. From: Huseini, H. F., Kianbakht, S., Hajiaghaee, R., & Dabaghian, F. H. (2012). Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypercholesterolemic effects of Aloe vera leaf gel in hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Planta medica, 78(04), 311-316.
A diet high in monounsaturated fat showed lowering serum lipid levels in 12 women with type two diabetes. From: Lerman-Garber, I., Ichazo-Cerro, S., Zamora-González, J., Cardoso-Saldaña, G., & Posadas-Romero, C. (1994). Effect of a high-monounsaturated fat diet enriched with avocado in NIDDM patients. Diabetes care, 17(4), 311-315.
The combination of aloe vera gel and a probiotic decreased cholesterol levels in rats. From: Kumar, M., Rakesh, S., Nagpal, R., Hemalatha, R., Ramakrishna, A., Sudarshan, V., … & Tiwari, A. (2013). Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Aloe vera gel improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic rats. Nutrition, 29(3), 574-579.
Phytosterols in aloe gel reduced fatty streaks in diabetic rats. From: Dana, N., Javanmard, S. H., Asgary, S., Asnaashari, H., & Abdian, N. (2012). The effect of Aloe vera leaf gel on fatty streak formation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 17(5).
Lignans in flaxseed reduced hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis by lowering LDL cholesterol in rabbits. From: Prasad, K. (1999). Reduction of serum cholesterol and hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis in rabbits by secoisolariciresinol diglucoside isolated from flaxseed. Circulation, 99(10), 1355-1362.
Defatted flaxseed lowered cholesterol levels in a study with twenty-nine hyperlipidemic subjects. From: Jenkins, D. J., Kendall, C. W., Vidgen, E., Agarwal, S., Rao, A. V., Rosenberg, R. S., … & Griffin, L. C. (1999). Health aspects of partially defatted flaxseed, including effects on serum lipids, oxidative measures, and ex vivo androgen and progestin activity: a controlled crossover trial. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 69(3), 395-402.
A three month flaxseed supplement reduced cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women. From: Lucas, E. A., Wild, R. D., Hammond, L. J., Khalil, D. A., Juma, S., Daggy, B. P., … & Arjmandi, B. H. (2002). Flaxseed improves lipid profile without altering biomarkers of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 87(4), 1527-1532.
Hyperlipidemia was reduced in fat rats via alpha linolenic acid rich flaxseed oil. From: Vijaimohan, K., Jainu, M., Sabitha, K. E., Subramaniyam, S., Anandhan, C., & Devi, C. S. (2006). Beneficial effects of alpha linolenic acid rich flaxseed oil on growth performance and hepatic cholesterol metabolism in high fat diet fed rats. Life sciences, 79(5), 448-454.
A flax and pumpkin seed mixture had a cholesterol lowering and hepatoprotective effect in rats. From: Makni, M., Fetoui, H., Gargouri, N. K., Garoui, E. M., Jaber, H., Makni, J., … & Zeghal, N. (2008). Hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of flax and pumpkin seed mixture rich in ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids in hypercholesterolemic rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46(12), 3714-3720.
Blood triglyceride levels in olive oil-fed mice were improved possibly related to the myricetin and gallic acid content of Myrica bark (bayberry). From: Kobayashi, K., Ihara, S., Kobata, A., Itoh, K., Kusunoki, N., & Yoshizaki, F. (2008). Inhibitory effect of Myrica bark on lipase activity in mouse plasma and gastrointestinal tract. Journal of medicinal food, 11(2), 289-293.
Elderberry spray-dried extract at a low dose exerts a minor effect on serum lipids. From: Murkovic, M., Abuja, P. M., Bergmann, A. R., & Zirngast, A. (2004). Effects of elderberry juice on fasting and postprandial serum lipids and low-density lipoprotein oxidation in healthy volunteers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. European journal of clinical nutrition, 58(2), 244.
M. vulgare significantly reduced blood glucose levels and cholesterol levels in diabetic rats. From: Elberry, A. A., Harraz, F. M., Ghareib, S. A., Gabr, S. A., Nagy, A. A., & Abdel-Sattar, E. (2015). Methanolic extract of Marrubium vulgare ameliorates hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. International Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 3(1), 37-44.
Orange and grapefruit reduced cholesterol in rats. From: Mallick, N., & Khan, R. A. (2016). Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations. Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences, 8(2), 112.
Elderberries show antiviral activity against the flu, antioxidant actions, and potential in lowering cholesterol. More research is needed. From: Vlachojannis, J. E., Cameron, M., & Chrubasik, S. (2010). A systematic review on the sambuci fructus effect and efficacy profiles. Phytotherapy Research, 24(1), 1-8.
Bahmani, M., Mirhoseini, M., Shirzad, H., Sedighi, M., Shahinfard, N., & Rafieian-Kopaei, M. (2015). A review on promising natural agents effective on hyperlipidemia. Journal of evidence-based complementary & alternative medicine, 20(3), 228-238.
Lemongrass essential oil was safe and effective in reducing cholesterol levels in rodents. From: Costa, C. A., Bidinotto, L. T., Takahira, R. K., Salvadori, D. M., Barbisan, L. F., & Costa, M. (2011). Cholesterol reduction and lack of genotoxic or toxic effects in mice after repeated 21-day oral intake of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 49(9), 2268-2272.
Lemongrass ethanol extracts reduced cholesterol levels in induced rats. From: Agbafor, K. N., & Akubugwo, E. I. (2007). Hypocholesterolaemic effect of ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass). African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(5), 596-598.
This in vivo study demonstrated the hypolipidemic, antioxidant, cardiac protective effect of ingesting a German chamomile extract. From: Nargesi, S., Moayeri, A., Ghorbani, A., Seifinejad, Y., & Shirzadpour, E. (2018). The effects of Matricaria chamomilla L. hydroalcoholic extract on atherosclerotic plaques, antioxidant activity, lipid profile and inflammatory indicators in rats. Biomedical Research and Therapy, 5(10), 2752-2761.
In a review of research grapefruit and its component, naringin has shown antioxidant, lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, cardiac protective, and anti-obesity effects. From: Razavi, B. M., & Hosseinzadeh, H. (2019). A Review of the Effects of Citrus paradisi (Grapefruit) and Its Flavonoids, Naringin, and Naringenin in Metabolic Syndrome. In Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Diabetes (pp. 515-543). Academic Press.
In this randomized controlled clinical trial with 37 patients who had metabolic syndrome, the treatment group received 2g of ginger powder a day for 12 weeks. Cholesterol, blood sugar, weight, blood pressure, and overall energy levels were significantly improved in the treatment group. From: Rahimlou, M., Yari, Z., Rayyani, E., Keshavarz, S. A., Hosseini, S., Morshedzadeh, N., & Hekmatdoost, A. (2019). Effects of ginger supplementation on anthropometric, glycemic and metabolic parameters in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 1-7.
In a randomized, single blind, placebo controlled study with 100 hyperlipidemic patients, taking a ginger supplement for 30 days significantly increased serum albumin levels. From: Mushtaq, S., Irshad, G., & Bilal, A. Z. (2018). Effect of Dried Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Serum Proteins in Hyperlipidemic Patients. PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL & HEALTH SCIENCES, 12(2), 583-586.
In a thorough review of research, including in vitro, in vivo, and 10 human studies, the author concluded ginger and its constituents have a beneficial effect against obesity and metabolic syndrome disorders like diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and high blood pressure. From: Wang, J., Ke, W., Bao, R., Hu, X., & Chen, F. (2017). Beneficial effects of ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity and metabolic syndrome: a review. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1398(1), 83-98.
Cholesterol, triglyceride, liver fat, and obesity was improved in rats given lime essential oil for eight weeks. From: Lin, L. Y., Chuang, C. H., Chen, H. C., & Yang, K. M. (2019). Lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle) Essential Oils: Volatile Compounds, Antioxidant Capacity, and Hypolipidemic Effect. Foods, 8(9), 398.
Juniper berry reduced cholesterol in rats without having an anemic effect. From: Akdogan, M., Koyu, A., Ciris, M., & Yildiz, K. (2012). Anti-hypercholesterolemic activity of Juniperus communis Lynn Oil in rats: A biochemical and histopathological investigation.
Extracts of C. sativum reduced cholesterol levels in hyperlipidemic rabbits. From: Joshi, S. C., Sharma, N., & Sharma, P. (2012). Antioxidant and lipid lowering effects of Coriandrum sativum in cholesterol fed rabbits. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4(3), 231-234.