Latin Name: Morinda citrifolia
Family Name: Rubiaceae
Noni’s fruit, roots, and leaves have been used for over 2000 years in Polynesian folk medicine and as a “starvation food” when food supplies were low.
The listings of research below represents a compilation of scientific articles found on the species, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. Research found is catalogued by therapeutic action. This categorized compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use.
- The antioxidant effect of noni juice on humans, and its immune system boosting effect and anti-inflammatory actions may account for the observed health benefits. Human studies have shown: reduced DNA damage in smokers, improved joint health, increased physical endurance, anti-diabetic activity, improved weight management, improved bone density, lowered blood pressure, and improved gum health. From: West, B., Deng, S., Isami, F., Uwaya, A., & Jensen, C. (2018). The potential health benefits of noni juice: a review of human intervention studies. Foods, 7(4), 58.
- This review of research on noni listed antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, antiparasite, analgesic, hypotensive, immunity-boosting, and improved hearing studies. From: Wang, M. Y., West, B. J., Jensen, C. J., Nowicki, D., Su, C., Palu, A. K., & Anderson, G. (2002). Morinda citrifolia (Noni): a literature review and recent advances in Noni research. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 23(12), 1127-1141.
- A review of research on noni discussed antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antitumor, anthelminthic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hypotensive, and immune enhancing studies. From: Assi, R. A., Darwis, Y., Abdulbaqi, I. M., Vuanghao, L., & Laghari, M. H. (2017). Morinda citrifolia (Noni): A comprehensive review on its industrial uses, pharmacological activities, and clinical trials. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10(5), 691-707.
- The author provided an extensive review of historical uses, active chemical components, and in vitro and in vivo studies showing the following therapeutic actions: antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, and wound healing potential. Human studies are warranted. From: Pawlus, A. D., & Kinghorn, A. D. (2007). Review of the ethnobotany, chemistry, biological activity and safety of the botanical dietary supplement Morinda citrifolia (noni). Journal of Pharmacy and pharmacology, 59(12), 1587-1609.
- In a study of 100 patients, the noni group who received a dose one hour before surgery had significantly less post operative nausea than the placebo. From: Prapaitrakool, S., & Itharat, A. (2011). Morinda citrifolia Linn. for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 93(12), 204.
- Noni extracts were antimicrobial against oral bacteria on the teeth. From: Murray, P. E., Farber, R. M., Namerow, K. N., Kuttler, S., & Garcia-Godoy, F. (2008). Evaluation of Morinda citrifolia as an endodontic irrigant. Journal of endodontics, 34(1), 66-70.
- Pulverized noni fruit had an antibacterial effect against oral bacteria in vitro. From: Kumarasamy, B., Manipal, S., Prabu Duraisamy, A. A., Mohanaganesh, S. P., & Jeevika, C. (2014). Role of aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia (Indian noni) ripe fruits in inhibiting dental caries-causing Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis. Journal of Dentistry (Tehran, Iran), 11(6), 703.
- Immunity boosting effects of noni were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. From: Palu, A. K., Kim, A. H., West, B. J., Deng, S., Jensen, J., & White, L. (2008). The effects of Morinda citrifolia L.(noni) on the immune system: its molecular mechanisms of action. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 115(3), 502-506.
- In a study of 90 patients with neck pain, neck pain and flexibility significantly improved in the noni group compared to the placebo. From: Akinbo S.R.A., Noronha C.C., Okanlawon A.O., Denesi M.A. Comparative study of the effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) with selected physiotherapy modalities in the management of patients with cervical spondylosis. Niger. J. Health Biomed. Sci. 2006;5:6–11.
- In a 3 month study of adults with osteoarthritis, drinking noni daily improved symptoms. A larger human study is warranted. From: Wang, M. Y., Lutfiyya, M. N., Weidenbacher-Hoper, V., Peng, L., Lipsky, M. S., & Anderson, G. (2011). Morinda citrifolia L.(noni) improves the Quality of Life in adults with Osteoarthritis. Functional Foods in Health and Disease, 1(2), 75-90.
- Drinking noni juice twice a day increased endurance in athletes. From: Palu, A. K., Seifulla, R. D., & West, B. J. (2008). Morinda citrifolia L.(noni) improves athlete endurance: Its mechanisms of action. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2(7), 154-158.
- Rodents showed reduced fatigue and increased physical performance with the ingestion of noni juice. From: Ma, D. L., West, B. J., Su, C. X., Gao, J. H., Liu, T. Z., & Liu, Y. W. (2007). Evaluation of the ergogenic potential of noni juice. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 21(11), 1100-1101.
ANTIMICROBIAL / ANTIBACTERIAL / ANTIVIRAL / ANTIFUNGAL
- Particles from noni extracts were inhibitory against the following human pathogens: Eschericia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Bacillus cereus and Enterococci sp. From: Sathishkumar, G., Gobinath, C., Karpagam, K., Hemamalini, V., Premkumar, K., & Sivaramakrishnan, S. (2012). Phyto-synthesis of silver nanoscale particles using Morinda citrifolia L. and its inhibitory activity against human pathogens. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 95, 235-240.
- Antibacterial and antifungal activity of noni was demonstrated in vitro against multiple test organisms (4). From: Jayaraman, S. K., Manoharan, M. S., & Illanchezian, S. (2008). Antibacterial, antifungal and tumor cell suppression potential of Morinda citrifolia fruit extracts. International journal of integrative biology, 3(1), 44-49.
- Plasma measured free radicals were significantly reduced compared to placebo in a study of 285 heavy smokers who took a noni juice supplement 3 times a day for 30 days. From: Wang, M. Y., Lutfiyya, M. N., Weidenbacher-Hoper, V., Anderson, G., Su, C. X., & West, B. J. (2009). Antioxidant activity of noni juice in heavy smokers. Chemistry Central Journal, 3(1), 13.
- In a small study with 22 overweight participants, taking a noni supplement for 12 weeks, along with exercise significantly improved body composition and demonstrated weight loss. From: Palu, A. K., West, B. J., & Jensen, J. (2011). Noni-based nutritional supplementation and exercise interventions influence body composition. North American journal of medical sciences, 3(12), 552.
- In vivo, noni reduced total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and caused an increase in HDL cholesterol. Further, it reduced a gain in body weight. From: Mandukhail, S. U. R., Aziz, N., & Gilani, A. H. (2010). Studies on antidyslipidemic effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fruit, leaves and root extracts. Lipids in Health and Disease, 9(1), 88.
- Roots, leaves, and fruit of the noni were analyzed and showed antioxidant activity. This demonsrates noni could be used as a natural food preservative. From: Zin, Z. M., Abdul-Hamid, A., & Osman, A. (2002). Antioxidative activity of extracts from Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.) root, fruit and leaf. Food Chemistry, 78(2), 227-231.
- Noni leaf extracts were larvicidal and pupicidal against three different mosquito species. From: Kovendan, K., Murugan, K., Shanthakumar, S. P., & Vincent, S. (2012). Evaluation of larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Morinda citrifolia L.(Noni)(Family: Rubiaceae) against three mosquito vectors. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 2, S362-S369.
ANTIMICROBIAL / ANTIBACTERIAL / ANTIFUNGAL / ANTIVIRAL
- Iridoids from noni fruit demonstrated antimicrobial activity against multiple tested bacteria. From: West, B. J., Palmer, S. K., Deng, S., & Palu, A. K. (2012). Antimicrobial activity of an iridoid rich extract from” morinda citrifolia” fruit. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 4(1), 52-54.
- Antibacterial and antifungal activity of noni was demonstrated in vitro against multiple test organisms. From: Jayaraman, S. K., Manoharan, M. S., & Illanchezian, S. (2008). Antibacterial, antifungal and tumor cell suppression potential of Morinda citrifolia fruit extracts. International journal of integrative biology, 3(1), 44-49.
- This article reviewed 19 in vivo and in vivo studies on the actions of noni against cancer. More research is needed. From: Brown, A. C. (2012). Anticancer activity of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fruit: a review. Phytotherapy Research, 26(10), 1427-1440.
- Noni fruit juice drinken for 2 months by diabetic patients helped lower blood sugar levels. From: Algenstaedt, P., Stumpenhagen, A., & Westendorf, J. (2018). The Effect of Morinda citrifolia L. Fruit Juice on the Blood Sugar Level and Other Serum Parameters in Patients with Diabetes Type 2. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018.
- Noni juice had an antidiabetic effect in diabetic rats. From: Horsfal, A. U., Olabiyi, O. A., Osinubi, A. A., Noronha, C. C., & Okanlawon, A. O. (2008). Anti diabetic effect of fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Tahitian Noni Juice®) on experimentally induced diabetic rats. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences, 7(2), 34-37.
- Noni juice was liver protective against toxic exposure in vivo. From: Wang, M. Y., Nowicki, D., Anderson, G., Jensen, J., & West, B. (2008). Liver protective effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni). Plant foods for human nutrition, 63(2), 59-63.
Compiled by: Kathy Sadowski