Latin Name: Petroselinum crispum
The listings of research below represent a compilation of scientific articles found on the species, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. Research found is catalogued by therapeutic action. This categorized compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use.
- Avoid with pregnancy, breast feeding, and small children due to myristicin content (Lis-balchin, 2006).
- Parsley apiole, a key constituent in parsley seed, is a possible abortifacient when taken in substantial doses (Tisserand & Young, 2014).
- Not for topical use as it can cause sensitivity with sun exposure (webMD, n.d.).
- Parsley might lower blood sugar levels and affect diabetes medications and result in hypoglycemia. For this reason, also avoid two weeks before surgery (webMD, n.d.).
- Parsley may increases water retention (edema) (webMD, n.d.).
- Parsley may increase blood pressure by causing the body to hold onto sodium (webMD, n.d.).
- Avoid with kidney disease (webMD, n.d.).
- May interfere with Warfarin, aspirin, and water pills (webMD, n.d.)
- Lis-Balchin, M. (2006). Aromatherapy Science: A guide for healthcare professionals. London: Pharmaceutical Press.
- WebMD. (n.d.). Parsley. Retrieved in December, 2016. Retrieved from www.webmd.com
- Tisserand, R. & Young, R. (2014). Essential Oil Safety. Second Edition. Churchill, Livingstone, Elsevier.
- This review presented polyacetylenes found in plants of the apiaceae family including angelica, anise, caraway, carrot, celery, cilantro, coriander, cumin, dill, fennel, parsley, celery and hemlock, having antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-platelet aggregating activities. From: Christensen, L. P., & Brandt, K. (2006). Bioactive polyacetylenes in food plants of the Apiaceae family: occurrence, bioactivity and analysis. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 41(3), 683-693.
- Phytochemistry and biological activities of parsley were reviewed. From: Farzaei, M. H., Abbasabadi, Z., Ardekani, M. R. S., Rahimi, R., & Farzaei, F. (2013). Parsley: a review of ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biological activities. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 33(6), 815-826.
- Extracts of parsley had an antispasmodic effect on rat ileum. From: Branković, S., Kitić, D., Radenković, M., Ivetić, V., Veljković, S., & Nešić, M. (2010). Relaxant activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. ex AW Hill, Apiaceae) on isolated ileum of rat. Medicinski pregled, 63(7-8), 475-478.
- Parsley extract reduced gastric ulcers in rats. From: Al-Howiriny, T., Al-Sohaibani, M., El-Tahir, K., & Rafatullah, S. (2003). Prevention of experimentally-induced gastric ulcers in rats by an ethanolic extract of” Parsley” Petroselinum crispum. The American journal of Chinese medicine, 31(05), 699-711.
- Parsley affected electrolyte levels to have a laxative effect in rats. From: Kreydiyyeh, S. I., Usta, J., Kaouk, I., & Al-Sadi, R. (2001). The mechanism underlying the laxative properties of parsley extract. Phytomedicine, 8(5), 382-388.
- Rats given aqueous parsley seed extract to drink had a significantly larger volume of urine. From: Kreydiyyeh, S. I., & Usta, J. (2002). Diuretic effect and mechanism of action of parsley. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 79(3), 353-357.
- A compilation of research showed the following herbs to have a diuretic effect: yarrow, lemon verbena, pineapple, dill, gorden asparagus, mugwort, oats, barberry, Indian tree, turnip, marigold, chicory, lemon, cucumber, pumpkin seed, quince, carrot, flix weed, horsetail, asafetida, fig, barely, St. John’s wort, bay, alfalfa, European pennyroyal, mulberry, water cress, catnip, black cumin, parsley, green bean, pistachio, cherry, pomegranate, purstane, savory, tomato, brinjal, tea, haritali, coltsfoot, nettle, bell bean, and corn. From: Rouhi-Boroujeni, H., Rouhi-Boroujeni, H., Khoddami, M., Khazraei, H. R., Dehkordil, E. B., & Rafieian-Kopaei, M. (2017). Hypolipidemic herbals with diuretic effects: A systematic review. In Biol. Sci (Vol. 8, pp. 21-28).
- Parsley reduced platelet aggregation and thinned blood in rats. From: Gadi, D., Bnouham, M., Aziz, M., Ziyyat, A., Legssyer, A., Legrand, C., … & Mekhfi, H. (2009). Parsley extract inhibits in vitro and ex vivo platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time in rats. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 125(1), 170-174.
- In studying improvement of memory and cognition, three Corydalis species were tested for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and Corydalis cava, Corydalis intermedia, Corydalis solida ssp. laxa and Corydalis solida exhibited significant inhibitory activity. Extracts of Ruta graveolens (rue), Lavandula angustifolia (lavender), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Petroselinum crispum (parsley) and Mentha spicata (spearmint) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity. From: Adsersen, A., Gauguin, B., Gudiksen, L., & Jäger, A. K. (2006). Screening of plants used in Danish folk medicine to treat memory dysfunction for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 104(3), 418-422.
ANTIMICROBIAL / ANTIBACTERIAL
- Parsley and basil essential oil demonstrated antibacterial activity against Vibrio strains found in seafood. From: Snoussi, M., Dehmani, A., Noumi, E., Flamini, G., & Papetti, A. (2016). Chemical composition and antibiofilm activity of Petroselinum crispum and Ocimum basilicum essential oils against Vibrio spp. strains. Microbial pathogenesis, 90, 13-21. Link:
- Parsley and cilantro demonstrated antioxidant and antibacterial activity in vitro. From: Wong, P. Y., & Kitts, D. D. (2006). Studies on the dual antioxidant and antibacterial properties of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) extracts. Food chemistry, 97(3), 505-515.
- Parsley was antibacterial against multiple tested pathogens. From: Seyyednejad, S. M., Maleki, S., Damabi, N. M., & Motamedi, H. (2008). Antibacterial activity of Prunus mahaleb and Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) against some pathogen. Asian J Biol Sci, 1, 51-5.
- Furocoumarins from parsley showed antimicrobial activity against multiple tested organisms. From: Manderfeld, M. M., Schafer, H. W., Davidson, P. M., & Zottola, E. A. (1997). Isolation and identification of antimicrobial furocoumarins from parsley. Journal of food protection, 60(1), 72-77.
- Leaf extracts of Petroselinum crispum (parsley) and Ruta graveolens (rue) showed the highest antimicrobial activity, potentially related to coumarin content. From: Ojala, T., Remes, S., Haansuu, P., Vuorela, H., Hiltunen, R., Haahtela, K., & Vuorela, P. (2000). Antimicrobial activity of some coumarin containing herbal plants growing in Finland. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 73(1), 299-305.
- Parsley contained a highly specific pathogen-responsive promoter element. From: Kirsch, C., Logemann, E., Lippok, B., Schmelzer, E., & Hahlbrock, K. (2001). A highly specific pathogen‐responsive promoter element from the immediate‐early activated CMPG1 gene in Petroselinum crispum. The Plant Journal, 26(2), 217-227.
- Myristicin showed chemo-preventative activity. From: Zheng, G. G., Kenney, P. M., & Lam, L. K. (1992). Myristicin: a potential cancer chemopreventive agent from parsley leaf oil. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry (USA).
- This was a review of studies on carnosol and its mechanistic, efficacy, and safety/tolerability as a cancer chemoprevention and anti-cancer agent. From: Johnson, J. J. (2011). Carnosol: a promising anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent. Cancer letters, 305(1), 1-7.
- Beta-carotene and apiol from parsley demonstrated antioxidant activity. From: Zhang, H., Chen, F., Wang, X., & Yao, H. Y. (2006). Evaluation of antioxidant activity of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) essential oil and identification of its antioxidant constituents. Food Research International, 39(8), 833-839.
- Parsley showed antioxidant activity in mice. From: Popović, M., Kaurinović, B., Jakovljević, V., Mimica‐Dukic, N., & Bursać, M. (2007). Effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. ex AW Hill, Apiaceae) extracts on some biochemical parameters of oxidative stress in mice treated with CCl4. Phytotherapy research, 21(8), 717-723.
- Parsley had a protective effect against mitochondrial oxidative damage in a mouse brain. From: Vora, S. R., Patil, R. B., & Pillai, M. M. (2009). Protective effects of Petroselinum crispum (Mill) Nyman ex AW Hill leaf extract on D-galactose-induced oxidative stress in mouse brain.
- Leaf and stem extracts from parsley and cilantro showed antioxidant and antibacterial activities in vitro. From: Wong, P. Y., & Kitts, D. D. (2006). Studies on the dual antioxidant and antibacterial properties of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) extracts. Food chemistry, 97(3), 505-515.
- The effects of parsley in diabetic rats was assessed. From: Ozsoy-Sacan, O., Yanardag, R., Orak, H., Ozgey, Y., Yarat, A., & Tunali, T. (2006). Effects of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) extract versus glibornuride on the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 104(1), 175-181.
- Parsley extract had an analgesic effect in mice. From: Eidi, A., Eidi, M., & Badiei, L. (2009). Antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract of parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) leaves in mice. Medical Science Journal of Islamic Azad Univesity-Tehran Medical Branch, 19(3), 181-186.
- Parsley essential oil suppressed the cellular and humoral immune response, NO production, and macrophages in vitro. From: Yousofi, A., Daneshmandi, S., Soleimani, N., Bagheri, K., & Karimi, M. H. (2012). Immunomodulatory effect of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) essential oil on immune cells: mitogen-activated splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, 34(2), 303-308.
- Parsley was tested in this randomized clinical trial as an ingredient in a cream for the treatment of melasma. From: Khosravan, S., Alami, A., Mohammadzadeh-Moghadam, H., & Ramezani, V. (2017). The Effect of Topical Use of Petroselinum Crispum (Parsley) Versus That of Hydroquinone Cream on Reduction of Epidermal Melasma: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Holistic nursing practice, 31(1), 16-20.
Compiled by: Kathy Sadowski
Last Updated: 9/19/19