The listings of research below represent a compilation of scientific articles found on the species, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. Research found is catalogued by therapeutic action. This categorized compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use.
Essential oils of cilantro, coriander, cinnamon, oregano, rosemary, sage, clove, thyme, lemongrass, turmeric, mint, basil, and constituents of linalool, cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, terpinene, cymene, alpha/beta pinene, bornyl acetate, camphor, 1,8-cineole, alpha terpeneol, geraniol, perrilaldehyde, and eugenol have demonstrated food preserving potential. From: Burt, S. (2004). Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review. International journal of food microbiology, 94(3), 223-253.
The study demonstrated Ocimum sanctum EO and eugenol as a plant based safe preservative against fungal spoilage of food. From: Kumar, A., Shukla, R., Singh, P., & Dubey, N. K. (2010). Chemical composition, antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil and its safety assessment as plant based antimicrobial. Food and chemical toxicology, 48(2), 539-543.
Cardamom essential oil showed significant activities in all antioxidant tests as well as a broad spectrum of antifungal activity and the study determined the essential oil and oleoresin of cardamom to be useful as natural food preservatives. From: Kapoor, I. P. S., Singh, B., Singh, G., Isidorov, V., & Szczepaniak, L. (2008). Chemistry, antifungal and antioxidant activities of cardamom (Amomum subulatum) essential oil and oleoresins. International Journal of Essential Oil Therapeutics, 2(1), 29.
Cinnamon oil was effective against the foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus and can be an alternative to traditional food preservatives. From: Valero, M., & Salmeron, M. C. (2003). Antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils against Bacillus cereus in tyndallized carrot broth. International journal of food microbiology, 85(1), 73-81.
Basil showed antifungal activities and could be a potential treatment for mycotic infections and act as a pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production. From: Deabes, M., El-Kassem, L. A., & Khalil, M. (2015). Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil. OA Maced J Med Sci. 2015 Sep 15; 3 (3): 374-379.
Antioxidant and antimicrobial actions of rosemary and its constituents are reviewed related to food preservation. From:Nieto, G., Ros, G., & Castillo, J. (2018). Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, L.): A Review. Medicines, 5(3), 98.
A review of research was provided on the antibacterial and antioxidant actions of rosemary and cardamom, especially related to food preservation. From: Singh, R., & Jaglan, R. K. V. (2018). Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of green cardamom and rosemary extract in food products: A brief review.
Rosemary extract showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activity to use to reduce food spoilage. From: Klancnik, A., Guzej, B., Kolar, M. H., Abramovic, H., & Mozina, S. S. (2009). In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Commercial Rosemary Extract Formulations. Journal of Food Protection, 72(8), 1744.
Rosemary and oregano extracts had stronger antioxidant properties than common food additives tested. From: Martínez-Tomé, M., Jiménez, A. M., Ruggieri, S., Frega, N., Strabbioli, R., & Murcia, M. A. (2001). Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean spices compared with common food additives. Journal of food protection, 64(9), 1412-1419.
Grapeseed and green tree extracts were antioxidant and could be used to retard lipid oxidation in food products. From: Rababah, T. M., Hettiarachchy, N. S., & Horax, R. (2004). Total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seed, ginger, rosemary, gotu kola, and ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and tert-butylhydroquinone. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(16), 5183-5186.
Aflotoxin production of tested fungi was prohibited by rosemary and Ajowan extracts and could be used to preserve food and prevent toxigenic fungal infection. Rasooli, I., Fakoor, M. H., Yadegarinia, D., Gachkar, L., Allameh, A., & Rezaei, M. B. (2008). Antimycotoxigenic characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. essential oils. International journal of food microbiology, 122(1), 135-139.
Rosemary extract was effective in inhibiting soybean oil oxidation. From: Valenzuela, A., Sanhueza, J., Alonso, P., Corbari, A., & Nieto, S. (2004). Inhibitory action of conventional food-grade natural antioxidants and of natural antioxidants of new development on the thermal-induced oxidation of cholesterol. International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 55(2), 155-162.
Roots, leaves, and fruit of the noni were analyzied and showed antioxidant activity. This demonsrates noni could be used as a natural food preservative. From: Zin, Z. M., Abdul-Hamid, A., & Osman, A. (2002). Antioxidative activity of extracts from Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.) root, fruit and leaf. Food Chemistry, 78(2), 227-231.
Cinnamon was the most effective essential oil against the foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus. From: Valero, M., & Salmeron, M. C. (2003). Antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils against Bacillus cereus in tyndallized carrot broth. International journal of food microbiology, 85(1), 73-81.
Antioxidant activity of spearmint related to preserving stored meat was demonstrated. From: Kanatt, S. R., Chander, R., & Sharma, A. (2007). Antioxidant potential of mint (Mentha spicata L.) in radiation-processed lamb meat. Food Chemistry, 100(2), 451-458.
Mint and curry extracts minimized lipid oxidation of pork products. From: Biswas, A. K., Chatli, M. K., & Sahoo, J. (2012). Antioxidant potential of curry (Murraya koenigii L.) and mint (Mentha spicata) leaf extracts and their effect on colour and oxidative stability of raw ground pork meat during refrigeration storage. Food chemistry, 133(2), 467-472.
Thyme and spearmint essential oils showed great antifungal potential and could be used as natural preservatives and fungicides.From: Soković, M. D., Vukojević, J., Marin, P. D., Brkić, D. D., Vajs, V., & Van Griensven, L. J. (2009). Chemical composition of essential oils of thymus and mentha species and their antifungal activities. Molecules, 14(1), 238-249.
Essential oils from Angelica Glauca and A. archangelica have shown antimicrobial and antioxidant activities that could be useful in food preservation. From: Joshi, R. K. (2016). Angelica (Angelica glauca and A. archangelica) Oils. In Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety (pp. 203-208). Academic Press.
Salad treated with a myrrh extract had less bacterial growth. From: Boffa, L., Binello, A., Boscaro, V., Gallicchio, M., Amisano, G., Fornasero, S., & Cravotto, G. (2016). Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. extracts: evaluation of antioxidant and antiproliferative activity and their ability to reduce microbial growth on fresh‐cut salad. International journal of food science & technology, 51(3), 625-632.
Acteoside isolated from mullein, a polyhydroxylated phenylpropanoid glycoside derivative, showed free radical scavenging activity and would be a useful food preservative against oxidative rancidity. From: Aligiannis, N., Mitaku, S., Tsitsa-Tsardis, E., Harvala, C., Tsaknis, I., Lalas, S., & Haroutounian, S. (2003). Methanolic extract of Verbascum macrurum as a source of natural preservatives against oxidative rancidity. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 51(25), 7308-7312.
Thyme essential oil showed the strongest activity against citrus fruit fungi. From: Arras, G., & Usai, M. (2001). Fungitoxic activity of 12 essential oils against four postharvest citrus pathogens: chemical analysis of Thymus capitatus oil and its effect in subatmospheric pressure conditions. Journal of Food Protection, 64(7), 1025-1029.
Thyme essential oil and its constituents of thymol and carvacrol were effective against food bacteria in vitro. From: Cosentino, S., Tuberoso, C. I. G., Pisano, B., Satta, M. L., Mascia, V., Arzedi, E., & Palmas, F. (1999). In‐vitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Sardinian thymus essential oils. Letters in applied microbiology, 29(2), 130-135.
Pullulan coatings with meadowsweet flower extract protected apples from mold during their storage. From: Gniewosz, M., Synowiec, A., Kraśniewska, K., Przybył, J. L., Bączek, K., & Węglarz, Z. (2014). The antimicrobial activity of pullulan film incorporated with meadowsweet flower extracts (Filipendulae ulmariae flos) on postharvest quality of apples. Food Control, 37, 351-361.
Bergamot was antifungal against Penicillium italicum. From: Sánchez-González, L., Cháfer, M., Chiralt, A., & González-Martínez, C. (2010). Physical properties of edible chitosan films containing bergamot essential oil and their inhibitory action on Penicillium italicum. Carbohydrate Polymers, 82(2), 277-283. Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.04.047
Citrus oils of orange, lemon, and bergamot may be an effective and safe antimicrobial additive in food. From: Fisher, K., & Phillips, C. (2008). Potential antimicrobial uses of essential oils in food: is citrus the answer?. Trends in food science & technology, 19(3), 156-164.
Polysaccharides from Citrus aurantium had therapeutic applications in medical and food industries related to their antioxidant activities. From: Wang, Q. H., Shu, Z. P., Xu, B. Q., Xing, N., Jiao, W. J., Yang, B. Y., & Kuang, H. X. (2014). Structural characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Citrus aurantium L. International journal of biological macromolecules, 67, 112-123.
Thyme, mint, and bay showed activity against food poisoning bacteria: Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. From: Aktuğ, Ş. E., & Karapinar, M. (1986). Sensitivity of some common food-poisoning bacteria to thyme, mint and bay leaves. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 3(6), 349-354.
Thyme, origanum, clove, and orange essential oils were the most inhibitory against foodborne bacteria and yeasts. Cumin, tea tree, and mint also provided inhibition. From: Irkin, R., & Korukluoglu, M. (2009). Growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and some yeasts by selected essential oils and survival of L. monocytogenes and C. albicans in apple–carrot juice. Foodborne pathogens and disease, 6(3), 387-394.
Peppermint essential oil showed antibacterial action dependent upon concentration, food pH, composition, storage temperature and the type of bacteria. From: Tassou, C. C., Drosinos, E. H., & Nychas, G. J. E. (1995). Effects of essential oil from mint (Mentha piperita) on Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes in model food systems at 4 and 10 C. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 78(6), 593-600.
Nine plant spice essential oils were tested on various microorganisms (Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida rugosa, Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus niger and showed antimicrobial activity and may be used to combat pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and improve shelf-life of foods. They included: savory, laurel, oregano, basil, cumin, sea fennel, myrtle, and mint. From: Özcan, M., & Erkmen, O. (2001). Antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Turkish plant spices. European Food Research and Technology, 212(6), 658-660.
Extracts of clove basil, ginger, and lemongrass were able to surpress rot causing fungi of soursop fruits. From: Okigbo, R. N., Ezebo, R. O., & Ugwu, S. C. (2018). Antifungal Attributes of Extracts of Ocimum gratissimum, Zingiber officinale, and Cymbopogon citratus on Rot Fungi of Soursop Fruit.
Angelica extracts were effective against mold in walnuts. From: Prakash, B., Singh, P., Goni, R., Raina, A. K. P., & Dubey, N. K. (2015). Efficacy of Angelica archangelica essential oil, phenyl ethyl alcohol and α-terpineol against isolated molds from walnut and their antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity. Journal of food science and technology, 52(4), 2220-2228.
Extracts and essential oils from Cupressus sempervirens were antibacterial in vitro against food spoilage pathogens. From: Selim, S. A., Adam, M. E., Hassan, S. M., & Albalawi, A. R. (2014). Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of the Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.). BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 14(1), 179.
Methanol extracts of Piper nigrum, Piper cubeba, and the root of Ligusticum acutilobum showed antimicrobial activity against food spoilage organisms. From: Rukayadi, Y., Lau, K. Y., Zainin, N. S., Zakaria, M., & Abas, F. (2013). Screening antimicrobial activity of tropical edible medicinal plant extracts against five standard microorganisms for natural food preservative. International Food Research Journal, 20(5), 2905.
Cymbopogon martinii was protective for stored wheat (Triticum aestivum) and gram (garbanzo bean, Cicer arietinum) against insect infestation the beetles Callosobruchus chinensis and Tribolium castaneum. From: Kumar, R., Srivastava, M., & Dubey, N. K. (2007). Evaluation of Cymbopogon martinii oil extract for control of postharvest insect deterioration in cereals and legumes. Journal of Food Protection®, 70(1), 172-178.
Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon nardus were more effective than the commercially used product against grain pests Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. From: Hernandez-Lambraño, R., Pajaro-Castro, N., Caballero-Gallardo, K., Stashenko, E., & Olivero-Verbel, J. (2015). Essential oils from plants of the genus Cymbopogon as natural insecticides to control stored product pests. Journal of Stored Products Research, 62, 81-83.
Citrus essential oils showed a variety of effectiveness against foodborne pathogens in vitro. From: Restuccia, C., Conti, G. O., Zuccarello, P., Parafati, L., Cristaldi, A., & Ferrante, M. (2019). Efficacy of different citrus essential oils to inhibit the growth and B1 aflatoxin biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-10.
Juniper essential oil showed potent food preservative against food spoilage fungi. From: Nikolić, B., Vasilijević, B., Ćirić, A., Mitić-Ćulafić, D., Cvetković, S., Džamić, A., & Knežević-Vukčević, J. (2019). Bioactivity of Juniperus communis essential oil and post-distillation waste: assessment of selective toxicity against food contaminants. ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 71(2), 235-244.