The listings of research below represent a compilation of scientific articles found on the species, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. Research found is catalogued by therapeutic action. This categorized compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use.
Tisserand, R. & Young, R. (2014). Essential Oil Safety. Second Edition. Churchill, Livingstone, Elsevier.
ANTIBACTERIAL / ANTIFUNGAL
The antimicrobial activities of Melaleuca spp is reviewed. From: Sharifi‐Rad, J., Salehi, B., Varoni, E. M., Sharopov, F., Yousaf, Z., Ayatollahi, S. A., … & Iriti, M. (2017). Plants of the Melaleuca genus as antimicrobial agents: From farm to pharmacy. Phytotherapy Research, 31(10), 1475-1494.
Antimicrobial activities of essential oils from Melaleuca species were demonstrated. From: Farag, R. S., Shalaby, A. S., El‐Baroty, G. A., Ibrahim, N. A., Ali, M. A., & Hassan, E. M. (2004). Chemical and biological evaluation of the essential oils of different Melaleuca species. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 18(1), 30-35.
Anethole anisata, Callistris glaucophyllia, Melaleuca spp. and Thyptomine calycina, showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against multiple pathogens. From: Wilkinson, J. M., & Cavanagh, H. (2005). Antibacterial activity of essential oils from Australian native plants. Phytotherapy Research, 19(7), 643-646.
Cajeput oil and its isolated constituents of linalool, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, and 1,8-cineole demonstrated antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients’ clinical material. From: Cuong, N. D., Xuyen, T. T., Motl, O., Stránský, K., Presslova, J., Jedlickova, Z., & Serý, V. (1994). Antibacterial properties of Vietnamese cajuput oil. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 6(1), 63-67.
Cineole, citral, geraniol, linalool and menthol were tested against a variety of bacteria and fungi, showing a range of antimicrobial activity. From: Pattnaik, S., Subramanyam, V. R., Bapaji, M., & Kole, C. R. (1996). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of aromatic constituents of essential oils. Microbios, 89(358), 39-46.
Australian plants demonstrated varying degrees of insect (mosquito) repellency and included: eucalyptus, tea tree, cajuput, manuka, balm mint bush, fragonia, myrtle, cypress, and niaouli. From: Webb, C. E. (2014). Insect repellents derived from Australian plants and implications for public health messages. Insect repellents handbook, 213.
Laboratory and field testing showed oil from Melaleuca ericifolia to be an effective insect repellent. From: Greive, K. A., Staton, J. A., Miller, P. F., Peters, B. A., & Oppenheim, V. J. (2010). Development of Melaleuca oils as effective natural‐based personal insect repellents. Australian journal of entomology, 49(1), 40-48.
In this placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial 246 patients with chronic bronchitis, long use (one month) of myrtol (contains alpha pinene, cineole, and d-limonene) over one month was tolerable and effective. From:Meister, R., Wittig, T., Beuscher, N., & de Mey, C. (1999). Efficacy and tolerability of Myrtol standardized in long-term treatment of chronic bronchitis. Arzneimittelforschung, 49(04), 351-358.
In this 2 week treatment of 676 patients with chronic bronchitis, myrtol (contains alpha pinene, cineole, and d-limonene) was safe and effective. From:Matthys, H., de Mey, C., Carls, C., Ryś, A., Geib, A., & Wittig, T. (2000). Efficacy and tolerability of myrtol standardized in acute bronchitis. Arzneimittelforschung, 50(08), 700-711.
In a review of essential oils from the Myrtaceae family, those containing higher amounts of 1,8-cineole demonstrated the highest activity to inhibit the AchE. Alzheimer’s disease is related to a loss of neuron function and neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). From: Petrachaianan, T., Chaiyasirisuwan, S., Athikomkulchai, S., & Sareedenchai, V. (2019). Screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity in essential oil from Myrtaceae. TJPS, 43(1), 63-68.
Linalool applied to the skin with a mask covering the nose to prevent smelling had a sedative effect in humans. From: Heuberger, E., Redhammer, S., & Buchbauer, G. (2004). Transdermal Absorption of ()-Linalool Induces Autonomic Deactivation but has No Impact on Ratings of Well-Being in Humans. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29(10).
Linalool possess anxiolytic properties in mice. From: Cheng, B. H., Sheen, L. Y., & Chang, S. T. (2015). Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice. Journal of traditional and complementary medicine, 5(1), 27-34.
Linalool and the anxiolytic effect on rats was assessed. From: McCall, S. (2008). Investigation of the anxiolytic effects of linalool, a lavender extract, in the male Sprague-Dawley rat. AANA journal, 76(1), 1.
Linalool has a sedative effects on the Central Nervous System, including hypnotic, anticonvulsant and hypothermic properties, due to an inhibitory effect on glutamate binding in the (rat) cortex. From: Elisabetsky, E., Marschner, J., & Souza, D. O. (1995). Effects of linalool on glutamatergic system in the rat cerebral cortex. Neurochemical research, 20(4), 461-465.
Inhalation of linalool oxide was anxiolytic in animal studies. From: Souto-Maior, F. N., de Carvalho, F. L., de Morais, L. C. S. L., Netto, S. M., de Sousa, D. P., & de Almeida, R. N. (2011). Anxiolytic-like effects of inhaled linalool oxide in experimental mouse anxiety models. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 100(2), 259-263.
Batista et al discussed linalool and the glutamatergic system involved in antinociception in mice. From: Batista, P. A., de Paula Werner, M. F., Oliveira, E. C., Burgos, L., Pereira, P., da Silva Brum, L. F., & dos Santos, A. R. S. (2008). Evidence for the involvement of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors on the antinociceptive effect of (−)-linalool in mice. Neuroscience letters, 440(3), 299-303.