Latin Name: Mentha spicata
The listings of research below represent a compilation of scientific articles found on the species, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. Research found is catalogued by therapeutic action. This categorized compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use.
Over 50 research articles have been catalogued on spearmint. It has shown in human studies to have an anti-nausea effect and the potential to improve cognition. Human studies have also demonstrated it may improve menstrual irregularity. In vitro studies have demonstrated antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasite, antioxidant, antihistamine, anti-inflammatory, and insect repelling potential.
- Lis-Balchin, M. (2006). Aromatherapy Science: A guide for healthcare professionals. London: Pharmaceutical Press.
- WebMD. (n.d.). Spearmint. Retrieved in February, 2016. Retrieved from www.webmd.com
- The highest amount of rosmarinic acid content was found in Mentha species especially M. spicata. From: Shekarchi, M., Hajimehdipoor, H., Saeidnia, S., Gohari, A. R., & Hamedani, M. P. (2012). Comparative study of rosmarinic acid content in some plants of Labiatae family. Pharmacognosy magazine, 8(29), 37.
- Avoid during pregnancy, may affect the uterus (WebMD, n.d.)
- Avoid with kidney or liver disease (WebMD, n.d.)
- Allergic reactions with some sensitive users, especially with toothpaste (Lis-Balchin, 2006).
- In studying improvement of memory and cognition, three Corydalis species were tested for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and Corydalis cava, Corydalis intermedia, Corydalis solida ssp. laxa and Corydalis solida exhibited significant inhibitory activity. Extracts of Ruta graveolens (rue), Lavandula angustifolia (lavender), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Petroselinum crispum (parsley) and Mentha spicata (spearmint) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity. From: Adsersen, A., Gauguin, B., Gudiksen, L., & Jäger, A. K. (2006). Screening of plants used in Danish folk medicine to treat memory dysfunction for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 104(3), 418-422.
- Chewing spearmint gum improved memory. From: Baker, J. R., Bezance, J. B., Zellaby, E., & Aggleton, J. P. (2004). Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory. Appetite, 43(2), 207-210.
- In a 3 month study with 90 older adults, intake of a spearmint supplement improved memory. From: Herrlinger, K. A., Nieman, K. M., Sanoshy, K. D., Fonseca, B. A., Lasrado, J. A., Schild, A. L., … & Ceddia, M. A. (2018). Spearmint extract improves working memory in men and women with age-associated memory impairment. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 24(1), 37-47.
- Nine subjects with memory impairment who took 900 mg of a spearmint extract for 3 months had improved memory without side effects. From: Nieman, K., Herrlinger, K., Sanoshy, K., Schild, A., Kelley, K., Maki, K., & Ceddia, M. (2014). Tolerance and Cognitive Function Effects of a Proprietary Spearmint Extract in Men and Women with Self-Reported Memory Impairment-A Pilot Study (LB402). The FASEB Journal, 28(1_supplement), LB402.
ANTIMICROBIAL / ANTIFUNGAL / ANTIBACTERIAL / ANTIVIRAL
- Inhibition of 45 oils on eight bacteria (four Gram positive and four Gram negative), two fungi, and one yeast were examined using disk assay. Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Melaleuca alternifolia showed an inhibition against all test organisms and phage. Coriandrum sativum highly inhibited Gram positive bacteria and fungi. Cymbopogon flexuosus and Chamaemelum nobile oils highly inhibited both phage types. Angelica archangelica and Pinus sylvestris inhibited bacteria, but not any fungi. Oils with the highest antimicrobial abilities with the broadest range of inhibition were cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus), savory (Satureja montana), Roman chamomile (Cbamaemelum nobile), rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora), spearmint (Mentha spicata) and tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia). From: Chao, S. C., Young, D. G., & Oberg, C. J. (2000). Screening for inhibitory activity of essential oils on selected bacteria, fungi and viruses. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 12(5), 639-649.
- Carvone and limonene isolated from spearmint and dill were active against a wide spectrum of human pathogenic fungi and bacteria tested. From: Aggarwal, K. K., Khanuja, S. P. S., Ahmad, A., Santha Kumar, T. R., Gupta, V. K., & Kumar, S. (2002). Antimicrobial activity profiles of the two enantiomers of limonene and carvone isolated from the oils of Mentha spicata and Anethum sowa. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 17(1), 59-63.
- Oregano, spearmint, lavender, and sage essential oils and the constituents of carvacrol and thymol exhibited antifungal properties against the human pathogens Malassezia furfur, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichosporon beigelii. From: Adam, K., Sivropoulou, A., Kokkini, S., Lanaras, T., & Arsenakis, M. (1998). Antifungal activities of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum, Mentha spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, and Salvia fruticosa essential oils against human pathogenic fungi. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(5), 1739-1745.
- Peppermint and spearmint were effective against the proliferation of Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin sensitive Staphylococccus aureus (MSSA). From: Imai, H., Osawa, K., Yasuda, H., Hamashima, H., Arai, T., & Sasatsu, M. (2000). Inhibition by the essential oils of peppermint and spearmint of the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Microbios, 106, 31-39.
- Plant oils of 52 species were tested against key bacteria. Lemongrass, oregano and bay inhibited all organisms, and rosewood, coriander, palmarosa, tea tree, niaouli, peppermint, spearmint, sage and marjoram inhibited all organisms except P. aeruginosa. Carrot, patchouli, sandalwood and vetiver inhibited Gram-positive bacteria and C. albicans. Myrrh and cypress inhibited only Gram-positive organisms and mandarin oil inhibited only C. albicans. From: Hammer, K. A., Carson, C. F., & Riley, T. V. (1999). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. Journal of applied microbiology, 86(6), 985-990.
- High antimicrobial activity with a high effectiveness against Candida albicans was demonstrated as well as potential antioxidant and insecticidal capabilities. Constituents included carvone (48.5%), limonene (20.7%), and 1,8-cineole (5.4%). From: Brahmi, F., Adjaoud, A., Marongiu, B., Falconieri, D., Yalaoui-Guellal, D., Madani, K., & Chibane, M. (2016). Chemical and biological profiles of essential oils from Mentha spicata L. leaf from Bejaia in Algeria. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 28(3), 211-220.
- Mentha piperita (peppermint), Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal), Mentha spicata (spearmint), Pelargonium graveolens (geranuim), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Thymus leptobotrys (thyme), Thymus pallidus (thyme), Thymus satureioides (thyme) and Citrus limon (lemon) essential oils of Morrocco were steam distilled and minimum inhibitory concentrations were assessed against ten bacteria strains (Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus equinus and Streptococcus pyogenes), two yeasts (Candida albicans and Candida glabrata) and two fungi (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium funiculosum). Two thyme species showed the strongest antimicrobial properties while peppermint, spearmint and T. pallidus gave intermediary results. From: El Asbahani, A., Jilale, A., Voisin, S. N., Aït Addi, E. H., Casabianca, H., El Mousadik, A., … & Renaud, F. N. (2015). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of nine essential oils obtained by steam distillation of plants from the Souss-Massa Region (Morocco). Journal of Essential Oil Research, 27(1), 34-44.
- 12 essential oils were tested against Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and Fusarium moniliforme. The oils of thyme, cinnamon, marigold, spearmint, basil, and quyssum completely inhibit all the test fungi. Caraway, anise, chamomile and hazanbul showed antifungal activity against certain species. From: Soliman, K. M., & Badeaa, R. I. (2002). Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi. Food and chemical toxicology, 40(11), 1669-1675.
- Of 35 medicinal plants tested, the essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity: Aloysia triphylla (lemon verbena), Anthemis nobilis (Roman chamomile), Cymbopogon martini (palmarosa), Cymbopogon winterianus (lemongrass), Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. From: Duarte, M. C. T., Figueira, G. M., Sartoratto, A., Rehder, V. L. G., & Delarmelina, C. (2005). Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 97(2), 305-311.
- The study demonstrated Mentha spicata had larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi, with carvone, cis-carveol, and limonene constituents most effective against A. stephensi. From: Govindarajan, M., Sivakumar, R., Rajeswari, M., & Yogalakshmi, K. (2012). Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Mentha spicata (Linn.) against three mosquito species. Parasitology research, 110(5), 2023-2032.
- Mentha piperita (peppermint), M. spicata (spearmint), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Origanum vulgare (oregano), O. applii (oregano), Aloysia triphylla (lemon verbena), Ocimum gratissimum (basil), and O. basilicum (basil) were studied and demonstrated varying degrees of antimicrobial activity. From: Sartoratto, A., Machado, A. L. M., Delarmelina, C., Figueira, G. M., Duarte, M. C. T., & Rehder, V. L. G. (2004). Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants used in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 35(4), 275-280. Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822004000300001
- Citrus aurantium (bergamot), C. limon (lemon), Lavandula angustifolia (lavender), Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile), Mentha piperita (peppermint), M. spicata (spearmint), Ocimum basilicum (basil), Origanum vulgare(oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), and Salvia officinalis (sage) along with their constituents were tested against human pathogenic bacteria. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil and carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested constituents. Other significant constituents included: camphor, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol. From: Soković, M., Glamočlija, J., Marin, P. D., Brkić, D., & van Griensven, L. J. (2010). Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model. Molecules, 15(11), 7532-7546. Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules15117532
- Spearmint and dill were effective against the bacteria against Enterobacter cloacae with carvone and piperitone being active constituents. From: Rafii, F., & Shahverdi, A. R. (2006). Comparison of essential oils from three plants for enhancement of antimicrobial activity of nitrofurantoin against enterobacteria. Chemotherapy, 53(1), 21-25.
- Roman chamomile, curry plant, hyssop, lavandin, marjoram sweet, orange mint, spearmint, monarda, oregano, rosemary, rue sage, tansy, tarragon, thyme common and yarrow showed vapour activity against the fungi that causes ringworm. From: Inouye, S., Uchida, K., & Abe, S. (2006). Volatile composition and vapour activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes of 36 aromatic herbs cultivated in Chichibu district in Japan. International Journal of Aromatherapy, 16(3), 159-168.
- Essential oils of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Mentha spicata significantly retard dental biofilm formation. From: Rasooli, I., Shayegh, S., & Astaneh, S. D. A. (2009). The effect of Mentha spicata and Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oils on dental biofilm. International journal of dental hygiene, 7(3), 196-203.
- The following essential oils were tested and showed varying degrees of antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial, and antiviral activities: Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata, Lavandula officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum onites, O. vulgare, O. munitiflorum, O. majorana, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, and Satureja cuneifolia. From: Orhan, İlkay Erdoğan, et al. “Antimicrobial and antiviral effects of essential oils from selected Umbelliferae and Labiatae plants and individual essential oil components.” Turkish Journal of Biology 36.3 (2012): 239-246.
- A review of research was conducted on the analgesic activities of the topical use of spearmint to treat osteoarthritis pain. From: Mahboubi, M. (2017). Mentha spicata as natural analgesia for treatment of pain in osteoarthritis patients. Complementary therapies in clinical practice, 26, 1-4.
ANTI-NAUSEA / DIGESTIVE AID
- Peppermint and spearmint reduced chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. From: Tayarani-Najaran, Z., Talasaz-Firoozi, E., Nasiri, R., Jalali, N., & Hassanzadeh, M. K. (2013). Antiemetic activity of volatile oil from Mentha spicata and Mentha× piperita in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. ecancermedicalscience, 7, 290.
- In a study of 32 patients with irritable bowel syndrome, a blend of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm), Mentha spicata (spearmint), and Coriandrum sativum (coriander seed) taken with either loperamide or psyllium reduced pain and bloating over the placebo. From: Vejdani, R., Shalmani, H. R. M., Mir-Fattahi, M., Sajed-Nia, F., Abdollahi, M., Zali, M. R., … & Amin, G. (2006). The efficacy of an herbal medicine, Carmint, on the relief of abdominal pain and bloating in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot study. Digestive diseases and sciences, 51(8), 1501-1507.
- In a randomized study with 121 patients having postoperative nausea, a blend of lavender, ginger, peppermint, and spearmint in a portable inhaler was effective and well received by patients. From: Hodge, N. S., McCarthy, M. S., & Pierce, R. M. (2014). A prospective randomized study of the effectiveness of aromatherapy for relief of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 29(1), 5-11.
- Pepper and mint plants of Peru from the Lamiaceae family demonstrated antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. From: Solis-Quispe, L., Tomaylla-Cruz, C., Callo-Choquelvica, Y., Solís-Quispe, A., Rodeiro, I., Hernández, I., … & Pino, J. A. (2016). Chemical composition, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oil from Schinus areira L. and Minthostachys spicata (Benth.) Epl. grown in Cuzco, Peru. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 28(3), 234-240. Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2015.1120691
- Ocimum basilicum (basil), Mentha spicata (spearmint), Pimpinella anisum (anise) and Fortunella margarita (kumquat) were studied for their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, and against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity was found in variable degrees and all the oils showed antiproliferative potential against a variety of human cancer cell lines with the most potent one being sweet basil against colon carcinoma. From: Fitsiou, E., Mitropoulou, G., Spyridopoulou, K., Tiptiri-Kourpeti, A., Vamvakias, M., Bardouki, H., … & Pappa, A. (2016). Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita. Molecules, 21(8), 1069.
- S‐carvone, as found in spearmint, possess antioxidant activity. From: Elmastaş, M., Dermirtas, I., Isildak, O., & Aboul‐Enein, H. Y. (2006). Antioxidant Activity of S‐Carvone Isolated from Spearmint (Mentha Spicata L. Fam Lamiaceae). Journal of liquid chromatography & related technologies, 29(10), 1465-1475.
- M. spicata reduced genotoxic effects in mice by lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes. From: Arumugam, P., & Ramesh, A. (2009). Antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential of aqueous fraction of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata (L.) against 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide–induced chromosome damage in mice. Drug and chemical toxicology, 32(4), 411-416.
- Radical scavenging, antioxidant activity was demonstrated in vitro of spearmint. From: Choudhury, R. P., Kumar, A., & Garg, A. N. (2006). Analysis of Indian mint (Mentha spicata) for essential, trace and toxic elements and its antioxidant behaviour. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 41(3), 825-832
- Phenolic content was associated with antioxidant activity of spearmint. From: Arumugam, P., Ramamurthy, P., Santhiya, S. T., & Ramesh, A. (2006). Antioxidant activity measured in different solvent fractions obtained from Mentha spicata Linn.: An analysis by ABTS.+ decolorization assay. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition, 15(1), 119.
- Phenolic content was associated with antioxidant properties of multiple mint species. From: Dorman, H. D., Koşar, M., Kahlos, K., Holm, Y., & Hiltunen, R. (2003). Antioxidant properties and composition of aqueous extracts from Mentha species, hybrids, varieties, and cultivars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(16), 4563-4569.
- S‐carvone from spearmint possessed high antioxidant activity. From: Elmastaş, M., Dermirtas, I., Isildak, O., & Aboul‐Enein, H. Y. (2006). Antioxidant Activity of S‐Carvone Isolated from Spearmint (Mentha Spicata L. Fam Lamiaceae). Journal of liquid chromatography & related technologies, 29(10), 1465-1475.
- The following extracts showed strong antioxidant activity, with a correlation to their polyphenol content: Alchemilla vulgaris (lady’s mantle), Sambucus ebulus (dwarf elderberry), Mentha spicata (spearmint), Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry), and Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn). From: Kiselova, Y., Ivanova, D., Chervenkov, T., Gerova, D., Galunska, B., & Yankova, T. (2006). Correlation between the in vitro antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of aqueous extracts from Bulgarian herbs. Phytotherapy research, 20(11), 961-965.
- Antioxidant activity of spearmint related to preserving stored meat was demonstrated. From: Kanatt, S. R., Chander, R., & Sharma, A. (2007). Antioxidant potential of mint (Mentha spicata L.) in radiation-processed lamb meat. Food Chemistry, 100(2), 451-458.
- Mint and curry extracts minimized lipid oxidation of pork products. From: Biswas, A. K., Chatli, M. K., & Sahoo, J. (2012). Antioxidant potential of curry (Murraya koenigii L.) and mint (Mentha spicata) leaf extracts and their effect on colour and oxidative stability of raw ground pork meat during refrigeration storage. Food chemistry, 133(2), 467-472.
- Thyme and spearmint essential oils showed great antifungal potential and could be used as natural preservatives and fungicides. From: Soković, M. D., Vukojević, J., Marin, P. D., Brkić, D. D., Vajs, V., & Van Griensven, L. J. (2009). Chemical composition of essential oils of thymus and mentha species and their antifungal activities. Molecules, 14(1), 238-249.
- Flavones in spearmint showed antihistaminic / antiallergy activity. From: Yamamura, S., Ozawa, K., Ohtani, K., Kasai, R., & Yamasaki, K. (1998). Antihistaminic flavones and aliphatic glycosides from Mentha spicata. Phytochemistry, 48(1), 131-136.
- Geranium, lemongrass and spearmint oils showed anti-inflammatory activity in mice. From: Abe, S., Maruyama, N., Hayama, K., Inouye, S., Oshima, H., & Yamaguchi, H. (2004). Suppression of neutrophil recruitment in mice by geranium essential oil. Mediators of inflammation, 13(1), 21-24. Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09629350410001664798
- Lemongrass, geranium and spearmint oils inhibited neutrophil adherence. From: Abe, S., Maruyama, N., Hayama, K., Ishibashi, H., Inoue, S., Oshima, H., & Yamaguchi, H. (2003). Suppression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced neutrophil adherence responses by essential oils. Mediators of inflammation, 12(6), 323-328.
- In a double blind placebo controlled study of 120 women with amenorrhea, taking a spearmint syrup increased menstruation.From: Mokaberinejad, R., Zafarghandi, N., Bioos, S., Dabaghian, F. H., Naseri, M., Kamalinejad, M., … & Hamiditabar, M. (2012). Mentha longifolia syrup in secondary amenorrhea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 20(1), 97.
- Spearmint tea showed antiandrogenic activity and might be useful in treating mild hirsutism in women. From: Akdoğan, M., Tamer, M. N., Cüre, E., Cüre, M. C., Köroğlu, B. K., & Delibaş, N. (2007). Effect of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae) teas on androgen levels in women with hirsutism. Phytotherapy Research, 21(5), 444-447.
- Drinking spearmint tea had antiandrogen properties in women with hirsutism. From: Grant, P. (2010). Spearmint herbal tea has significant anti‐androgen effects in polycystic ovarian syndrome. a randomized controlled trial. Phytotherapy Research, 24(2), 186-188.
- In rats, spearmint probably induced oxidative stress in hypothalamus to give it an anti-androgenic effect. From: Kumar, V., Kural, M. R., Pereira, B. M. J., & Roy, P. (2008). Spearmint induced hypothalamic oxidative stress and testicular anti-androgenicity in male rats–altered levels of gene expression, enzymes and hormones. Food and chemical toxicology, 46(12), 3563-3570.
- In a review of studies, the author found Matricaria chamomilla, elettaria cardamomum, pomegranate and spearmint syrup, lemon, and ginger to help pregnant women with nausea. From: Khorasani, F., Aryan, H., Sobhi, A., Aryan, R., Abavi-Sani, A., Ghazanfarpour, M., … & Rajab Dizavandi, F. (2019). A systematic review of the efficacy of alternative medicine in the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1-10.
- Jasminum fruticans, Mentha longifolia, Pinus nigra, Zea mays, Citrillus lanatus (watermelon), Juniperus drupacea (fruit), Juniperus oxcycedrus, and Plantago lanceolata displayed significant anthelmintic activity against pinworms. From: Kozan, E., Küpeli, E., & Yesilada, E. (2006). Evaluation of some plants used in Turkish folk medicine against parasitic infections for their in vivo anthelmintic activity. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 108(2), 211-216.
INSECTICIDAL / REPELLENT / LARVICIDAL / PESTICIDAL
- Apium graveolens (celery), Citrus sinensis (orange), Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus), Juniperus oxycedrus (juniper), Laurus nobilis (bay), Lavandula hybrida (lavender) , Mentha microphylla (mint), Mentha viridis (spearmint), Ocimum basilicum (basil), Origanum vulgare (oregano), Pistacia terebinthus (turpentine tree), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), and Thuja orientalis (thuja) were effective insect repellents against Acanthoscelides obtectus. From: Papachristos, D. P., & Stamopoulos, D. C. (2002). Repellent, toxic and reproduction inhibitory effects of essential oil vapours on Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say)(Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 38(2), 117-128. Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-474X(01)00007-8
- Thyme, savory and spearmint were active against the mite: Varroa, without being toxic to honeybee colonies. From: Ariana, A., Ebadi, R., & Tahmasebi, G. (2002). Laboratory evaluation of some plant essences to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology, 27(4), 319-327.
- The following essential oils showed fumigant potential against these mites: Tetranychus urticae and Phytoseiulus persimilis: caraway seed, citronella, java, lemon eucalyptus, pennyroyal, peppermint, sage, spearmint. From: Choi, W. I., Lee, S. G., Park, H. M., & Ahn, Y. J. (2004). Toxicity of plant essential oils to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 97(2), 553-558. Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/97.2.553
- Of 53 tested plant oils, bay, caraway seed, clove leaf, lemon eucalyptus, lime, pennyroyal, peppermint, rosewood, spearmint, and tea tree oils were highly effective against the greenhouse whitefly. From: Choi, W. I., Lee, E. H., Choi, B. R., Park, H. M., & Ahn, Y. J. (2003). Toxicity of plant essential oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 96(5), 1479-1484.
- Spearmint and its constituents: carvone, cis-carveol, and limonene, were larvicidal against three mosquito species. From: Govindarajan, M., Sivakumar, R., Rajeswari, M., & Yogalakshmi, K. (2012). Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Mentha spicata (Linn.) against three mosquito species. Parasitology research, 110(5), 2023-2032.
- Against the red mite, the following oils were acaricidal: bay, cade, cinnamon, clove bud, coriander, horseradish, lime, mustard, pennyroyal, pimento berry, spearmint, thyme red and thyme white oils. From: Kim, S. I., Yi, J. H., Tak, J. H., & Ahn, Y. J. (2004). Acaricidal activity of plant essential oils against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae). Veterinary parasitology, 120(4), 297-304.
- Against the sciarid fly, good insecticidal activity was achieved with essential oils of caraway seed, lemongrass, mandarin, nutmeg, cade (Juniperus oxycedrus), spearmint, cumin, and red thyme. From: Park, I. K., Kim, J. N., Lee, Y. S., Lee, S. G., Ahn, Y. J., & Shin, S. C. (2008). Toxicity of plant essential oils and their components against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 101(1), 139-144.
- Piperitenone oxide from spearmint was found to be highly toxic and repellent toward the malarial vector A. stephensi. From: Tripathi, A. K., Prajapati, V., Ahmad, A., Aggarwal, K. K., & Khanuja, S. P. (2004). Piperitenone oxide as toxic, repellent, and reproduction retardant toward malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Anophelinae). Journal of medical entomology, 41(4), 691-698.
- Spearmint oil had a protective effect on lung injury in COPD rats. From: Zhao, C. Z., Wang, Y., Tang, F. D., Zhao, X. J., Xu, Q. P., Xia, J. F., & Zhu, Y. F. (2008). Effect of spearmint oil on inflammation, oxidative alteration and Nrf2 expression in lung tissue of COPD rats. Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban= Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences, 37(4), 357-363.
- Spearmint tea inhibited carcinogenic mutagenic activity. From: Yu, T. W., Xu, M., & Dashwood, R. H. (2004). Antimutagenic activity of spearmint. Environmental and molecular mutagenesis, 44(5), 387-393.
- Carvone and limonene showed involuntary muscle spasmolytic activity in vitro. From: de Sousa, D. P., Mesquita, R. F., de Araújo Ribeiro, L. A., & de Lima, J. T. (2015). Spasmolytic activity of carvone and limonene enantiomers. Natural product communications, 10(11), 1934578X1501001120.
By: Kathy Sadowski