Terpinene is a monoterpene found in juniper, marjoram, ajowan, cardamom, cumin, tea tree, cannabis, hyssop, wild carrot seed, and savory.
Monoterpenes are odorless, highly volatile, prone to oxidation, and insoluble in water.
Links to Plants Containing Terpinene
The listings of research below represent a compilation of scientific articles found on the topic, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. This compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use of any herb listed.
- Y-terpinene contributed to lowering LDL oxidation. From: Milde, J., Elstner, E. F., & Grassmann, J. (2004). Synergistic inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation by rutin, γ-terpinene, and ascorbic acid. Phytomedicine, 11(2), 105-113.
ACARACIDAL / INSECTICIDAL / REPELLENT
- Carvacrol and y-terpene constituents from Satureja thymbra (winter savory) killed ticks. From: Cetin, H., Cilek, J. E., Oz, E., Aydin, L., Deveci, O., & Yanikoglu, A. (2010). Acaricidal activity of Satureja thymbra L. essential oil and its major components, carvacrol and γ-terpinene against adult Hyalomma marginatum (Acari: Ixodidae). Veterinary parasitology, 170(3), 287-290. Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.02.031
- Essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus, Lavender officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris showed repellent activities against the mosquito: Culex pipiens pallens. Thyme was the strongest and constituents that were effective included alpha-terpinene, thymol, p-cymene, carvacrol, and linalool. From: Choi, W. S., Park, B. S., Ku, S. K., & Lee, S. E. (2002). Repellent activities of essential oils and monoterpenes against Culex pipiens pallens. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 18(4), 348-351.
- Wild carrot seed oil was larvacidal against the mosquitos: Aedes aegypti, Culex pipiens, and Culex restuans Theobald. The most active constituents included: terpinolene, para cymene, and γ-terpinene. From: Muturi, E. J., Doll, K., Ramirez, J. L., & Rooney, A. P. (2018). Bioactivity of wild carrot (Daucus carota, Apiaceae) essential oil against mosquito larvae. Journal of medical entomology, 56(3), 784-789.
- The study demonstrated the gram positive and gram negative antibacterial activities of thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. From: Cristani, M., D’Arrigo, M., Mandalari, G., Castelli, F., Sarpietro, M. G., Micieli, D., … & Trombetta, D. (2007). Interaction of four monoterpenes contained in essential oils with model membranes: implications for their antibacterial activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(15), 6300-6308.
- Cajeput oil and its isolated constituents of linalool, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, and 1,8-cineole demonstrated antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients’ clinical material. From: Cuong, N. D., Xuyen, T. T., Motl, O., Stránský, K., Presslova, J., Jedlickova, Z., & Serý, V. (1994). Antibacterial properties of Vietnamese cajuput oil. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 6(1), 63-67.
- Essential oils of cilantro, coriander, cinnamon, oregano, rosemary, sage, clove, thyme, lemongrass, turmeric, mint, basil, and constituents of linalool, cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, terpinene, cymene, alpha/beta pinene, bornyl acetate, camphor, 1,8-cineole, alpha terpeneol, geraniol, perrilaldehyde, and eugenol have demonstrated food preserving potential. From: Burt, S. (2004). Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review. International journal of food microbiology, 94(3), 223-253.
- Tea tree oil and its isolated terpenoids showed antioxidant activities. From: Kim, H. J., Chen, F., Wu, C., Wang, X., Chung, H. Y., & Jin, Z. (2004). Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil and its components. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 52(10), 2849-2854.
By: Kathy Sadowski