Latin Name: Thymus vulgaris
The listings of research below represent a compilation of scientific articles found on the species, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. Research found is catalogued by therapeutic action. This categorized compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use.
- The constituent thymol was reviewed from multiple studies related to improving reproductive performances, nutrient bioavailability, immunity and general health of livestock. From: El-Hack, M. E. A., Alagawany, M., Farag, M. R., Tiwari, R., Karthik, K., Dhama, K., … & Adel, M. (2016). Beneficial impacts of thymol essential oil on health and production of animals, fish and poultry: a review. J. Essent. Oil Res, 10(10412905.2016), 1153002.
- This is a summary of research on therapeutic actions of carvacrol, including: antimicrobial, antitumor, antimutagenic, antigenotoxic, analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, antiparasitic, antiplatelet, Ache inhibitory, anti-elastase, insecticidal, antihepatotoxic and hepatoprotective activities and uses such as feed additive, in honeybee breeding and in gastrointestinal ailments. From: Can Baser, K. H. (2008). Biological and pharmacological activities of carvacrol and carvacrol bearing essential oils. Current pharmaceutical design, 14(29), 3106-3119.
- Luteolin is a flavonoid found in carrots, peppers, celery, olive oil, peppermint, thyme, rosemary and oregano. This study reviews its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. From: López-Lázaro, M. (2009). Distribution and biological activities of the flavonoid luteolin. Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry, 9(1), 31-59.
- Thyme oil and yarrow herb had the most positive effects on chick health. From: Cross, D. E., McDevitt, R. M., Hillman, K., & Acamovic, T. (2007). The effect of herbs and their associated essential oils on performance, dietary digestibility and gut microflora in chickens from 7 to 28 days of age. British poultry science, 48(4), 496-506.
- A review of scientific research on the thymol constituent is provided. From: Marchese, A., Orhan, I. E., Daglia, M., Barbieri, R., Di Lorenzo, A., Nabavi, S. F., … & Nabavi, S. M. (2016). Antibacterial and antifungal activities of thymol: A brief review of the literature. Food chemistry, 210, 402-414.
- For the essential oil, thymol, carvacrol, and camphor constituents are toxic, a skin patch test is required and do not exceed max dose (Petersen, 2015).
- Not for use with small children, during pregnancy, or breast feeding (Lis-Balchin, 2006).
- Possible increased bleeding; use caution with blood disorders or up to two weeks before surgery and avoid with antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs (WebMD, n.d.)
- Essential oil can cause liver toxicity if used excessively related to phenol constituents (Petersen, 2015).
- Estrogen forming; avoid with hormone-sensitive conditions like breast, ovarian, and uterine cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids (WebMD, n.d.)
- Multiple chemotypes.
- There is red and white thyme oil. White has been rectified and redistilled, with a less sharp aroma (Petersen, 2015).
- Sweet thyme is high in geraniol and geranyl acetate (Lis-Balchin, 2006).
- Maybe adultered with oregano, other thyme varieties, other essential oils, or synthetics (Lis-Balchin, 2006).
ANTIMICROBIAL / ANTIFUNGAL / ANTIBACTERIAL / ANTIVIRAL
- Thyme and anise oils were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with strongest action against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Proteus vulgaris. Combining the essential oils demonstrated additive action against most bacteria, especially P. aeruginosa. From: Al-Bayati, F. A. (2008). Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 116(3), 403-406.
- Cinnamon, lemon thyme, thyme, honey myrtle, lavender, and fragonia demonstrated varying degrees of antibacterial activity against multiple tested pathogens. From: Durmic, Z., McSweeney, C. S., Kemp, G. W., Hutton, P., Wallace, R. J., & Vercoe, P. E. (2008). Australian plants with potential to inhibit bacteria and processes involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 145(1-4), 271-284.
- A mouth rinse containing thymol with eucalyptol and benzoic acid (Listerine) showed oral antifungal activity, especially against Candida albicans. From: Abirami, C. P., & Venugopal, P. V. (2005). Antifungal activity of three mouth rinses–in vitro study. Indian journal of pathology & microbiology, 48(1), 43-44.
- Cinnamon, Mexican oregano, oregano, thyme, and ginger essential oils showed antifungal activity. From: Pozzatti, P., Scheid, L. A., Spader, T. B., Atayde, M. L., Santurio, J. M., & Alves, S. H. (2008). In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. Canadian journal of microbiology, 54(11), 950-956.
- Thymus vulgaris and Eucalyptus globulus showed antibacterial activity against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other tested bacterial strains. From: Tohidpour, A., Sattari, M., Omidbaigi, R., Yadegar, A., & Nazemi, J. (2010). Antibacterial effect of essential oils from two medicinal plants against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Phytomedicine, 17(2), 142-145.
- Antimicrobial activities of lavender, thyme, peppermint, cajeput, cinnamon, clove, eucalyptus, sage, and tea tree were summarized. From: Wińska, K., Mączka, W., Łyczko, J., Grabarczyk, M., Czubaszek, A., & Szumny, A. (2019). Essential Oils as Antimicrobial Agents—Myth or Real Alternative?. Molecules, 24(11), 2130.
- Fourteen essential oils were tested against multiple bacteria and cinnamon bark, lemongrass and thyme oils showed the lowest minimal inhibitory dose. From: Inouye, S., Takizawa, T., & Yamaguchi, H. (2001). Antibacterial activity of essential oils and their major constituents against respiratory tract pathogens by gaseous contact. Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy, 47(5), 565-573.
- The study demonstrated the gram positive and gram negative antibacterial activities of thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. From: Cristani, M., D’Arrigo, M., Mandalari, G., Castelli, F., Sarpietro, M. G., Micieli, D., … & Trombetta, D. (2007). Interaction of four monoterpenes contained in essential oils with model membranes: implications for their antibacterial activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(15), 6300-6308.
- Carvacrol prevents the development of flagella in E. coli. From: Burt, S. A., van der Zee, R., Koets, A. P., de Graaff, A. M., van Knapen, F., Gaastra, W., … & Veldhuizen, E. J. (2007). Carvacrol induces heat shock protein 60 and inhibits synthesis of flagellin in Escherichia coli O157: H7. Applied and environmental microbiology, 73(14), 4484-4490.
- Cinnamon, thyme, oregano, and cumin stopped mycelial growth at the lowest concentration. From: Tantaoui-Elaraki, A., & Beraoud, L. (1993). Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus by essential oils of selected plant materials. Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology: official organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer, 13(1), 67-72.
- Prunella, peppermint, rosemary and thyme extracts provided antiviral activity against Herpes 1. From: Reichling, J., Nolkemper, S., Stintzing, F. C., & Schnitzler, P. (2008). Impact of ethanolic lamiaceae extracts on herpesvirus infectivity in cell culture. Forschende Komplementärmedizin/Research in Complementary Medicine, 15(6), 313-320.
- The following essential oils demonstrated an antimicrobial effect: Satureja montana (winter savory), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), and Calamintha nepeta (calamint). From: Panizzi, L., Flamini, G., Cioni, P. L., & Morelli, I. (1993). Composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oils of four Mediterranean Lamiaceae. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 39(3), 167-170.
- Complete inhibition of mycelial growth and aflatoxin production by the fungus Aspergillus parasticus were achieved by these oils: thyme, cumin, clove, caraway, rosemary, and sage. From: Farag, R. S., Daw, Z. Y., & Abo‐Raya, S. H. (1989). Influence of some spice essential oils on Aspergillus parasiticus growth and production of aflatoxins in a synthetic medium. Journal of Food Science, 54(1), 74-76.
- Antifungal activity of thymol as it affects gene expression were assessed. From: Bi, X., Guo, N., Jin, J., Liu, J., Feng, H., Shi, J., … & Yan, S. (2010). The global gene expression profile of the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by thymol. Journal of applied microbiology, 108(2), 712-722.
- Penicillium digitatum fungus was inhibited completely by oregano, thyme, dictamus, and marjoram essential oils at low concentrations. From: Daferera, D. J., Ziogas, B. N., & Polissiou, M. G. (2000). GC-MS analysis of essential oils from some Greek aromatic plants and their fungitoxicity on Penicillium digitatum. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(6), 2576-2581.
- Extracts from lemon balm, peppermint, prunella, rosemary, sage, and thyme showed action against Herpes types 1 and 2. From: Nolkemper, S., Reichling, J., Stintzing, F. C., Carle, R., & Schnitzler, P. (2006). Antiviral effect of aqueous extracts from species of the Lamiaceae family against Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro. Planta medica, 72(15), 1378-1382.
- Thymol reduced biofilm formation of Candida albicans. From: Braga, P. C., Culici, M., Alfieri, M., & Dal Sasso, M. (2008). Thymol inhibits Candida albicans biofilm formation and mature biofilm. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 31(5), 472-477.
- Cinnamon, clove, and thyme oils inhibited the bacteria: Aeromonas hydrophila. From: Fabio, A., Corona, A., Forte, E., & Quaglio, P. (2003). Inhibitory activity of spices and essential oils on psychrotrophic bacteria. The new microbiologica, 26(1), 115-120.
- Essential oils of cinnamon, peppermint, basil, origanum, clove, and thyme caused a total inhibition of fungal development on maize kernels without a phytotoxic effect. From: Montes-Belmont, R., & Carvajal, M. (1998). Control of Aspergillus flavus in maize with plant essential oils and their components. Journal of Food Protection®, 61(5), 616-619.
- Basil, clove, garlic, horseradish, marjoram, oregano, rosemary, and thyme exhibited antibacterial activities on a foodborne pathogen, Vibrio parahaemolyticus. From: Yano, Y., Satomi, M., & Oikawa, H. (2006). Antimicrobial effect of spices and herbs on Vibrio parahaemolyticus. International journal of food microbiology, 111(1), 6-11.
- Sixty-five bacteria were tested against 13 essential oils. Cinnamon bark, cinnamon leaf, oregano, thyme, ajowan, and clove showed strong antibacterial activity. From: Mayaud, L., Carricajo, A., Zhiri, A., & Aubert, G. (2008). Comparison of bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of 13 essential oils against strains with varying sensitivity to antibiotics. Letters in applied microbiology, 47(3), 167-173.
- Orange, eucalyptus, fennel, geranium, juniper, peppermint, rosemary, purified turpentine, thyme, and Australian tea tree oil as well as the constituent of menthol showed antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities against the bacteria tested. From: Schelz, Z., Molnar, J., & Hohmann, J. (2006). Antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils. Fitoterapia, 77(4), 279-285.
- Thyme, origanum, clove, and orange essential oils were the most inhibitory against foodborne bacteria and yeasts. Cumin, tea tree, and mint also provided inhibition. From: Irkin, R., & Korukluoglu, M. (2009). Growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and some yeasts by selected essential oils and survival of L. monocytogenes and C. albicans in apple–carrot juice. Foodborne pathogens and disease, 6(3), 387-394.
- Thymus caramanicus composed of carvacrol (68.9%), p-cymene (6.0%), thymol (5.3%), gamma-terpinene (4.6%) and borneol (4.0%), showed strong activity against Helicobacter pylori bacteria. From: Eftekhar, F., Nariman, F., Yousefzadi, M., Hadiand, J., & Ebrahimi, S. N. (2009). Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity and essential oil composition of Thymus caramanicus from Iran. Natural product communications, 4(8), 1139-1142.
- Antimicrobial activity and composition of a variety of thyme species were assessed. From: Azaz, A. D., Irtem, H. A., Kurkcuoǧlu, M., & Can Baser, K. H. (2004). Composition and the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of some Thymus species. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C, 59(1-2), 75-80.
- Basil, lemon balm, marjoram, oregano, rosemary, sage, and thyme showed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity on foodborne pathogens. From: Gutierrez, J., Rodriguez, G., Barry-Ryan, C., & Bourke, P. (2008). Efficacy of plant essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria associated with ready-to-eat vegetables: antimicrobial and sensory screening. Journal of Food Protection®, 71(9), 1846-1854.
- Oregano, thyme, cinnamon bark, lemongrass, clove, palmarose, peppermint, lavender > geranium Bourbon, and tea tree reduced fungus in heated footbath water. From: Inouye, S., Uchida, K., Nishiyama, Y., Hasumi, Y., Yamaguchi, H., & Abe, S. (2007). Combined effect of heat, essential oils and salt on the fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in foot bath. Nippon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi, 48(1), 27-36.
- Oregano and thyme EO possess significant in vitro antimicrobial properties and oregano irreversibly damaged E. coli cells within one minute. From: Burt, S. A., & Reinders, R. D. (2003). Antibacterial activity of selected plant essential oils against Escherichia coli O157: H7. Letters in applied microbiology, 36(3), 162-167.
- Oregano, basil, and thyme exhibited antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activity. Oregano was effective against multiresistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. From: Bozin, B., Mimica-Dukic, N., Simin, N., & Anackov, G. (2006). Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some Lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 54(5), 1822-1828.
- Thymol and carvacrol of Thymus glandulosus and Origanum compactum exhibited the strongest antifungal activity. From: Bouchra, C., Achouri, M., Hassani, L. I., & Hmamouchi, M. (2003). Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of seven Moroccan Labiatae against Botrytis cinerea Pers: Fr. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 89(1), 165-169.
- Thymus Algeriensis with the following major components: linalool (47.3%), thymol (29.2%) and p-cymene (6.8%), showed antifungal and antibacterial activity against tested organisms. From: Dob, T., Dahmane, D., Benabdelkader, T., & Chelghoum, C. (2006). Studies on the essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut. International Journal of Aromatherapy, 16(2), 95-100.
- Origanum vulgare, Thymus zygis, and Thymus mastichina showed high antimicrobial activity against four strains of Salmonella. From: Penalver, P., Huerta, B., Borge, C., Astorga, R., Romero, R., & Perea, A. (2005). Antimicrobial activity of five essential oils against origin strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Apmis, 113(1), 1-6.
- Lemon balm, marjoram, oregano and thyme essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against food spoilage bacteria. From: Gutierrez, J., Barry-Ryan, C., & Bourke, P. (2009). Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils using food model media: efficacy, synergistic potential and interactions with food components. Food microbiology, 26(2), 142-150.
- Thyme, mint, and bay showed activity against food poisoning bacteria: Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. From: Aktuğ, Ş. E., & Karapinar, M. (1986). Sensitivity of some common food-poisoning bacteria to thyme, mint and bay leaves. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 3(6), 349-354.
- Thyme, sweet fennel, marjoram, mint, oregano, sage, savory, and thyme showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus species. From: Özcan, M. M., Sagdıç, O., & Özkan, G. (2006). Inhibitory effects of spice essential oils on the growth of Bacillus species. Journal of medicinal food, 9(3), 418-421.
- Essential oils of thyme, peppermint, pennyroyal, caraway, and fennel showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli. From: Mohsenzadeh, M. (2007). Evaluation of antibacterial activity of selected Iranian essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in nutrient broth medium. Pak J Biol Sci, 10(20), 3693-3697.
- In a mega-analysis of over 500 studies on essential oil antimicrobial activity, spices and herbs of thyme, origanum, mint, cinnamon, salvia and clove had the strongest antimicrobial properties. From: Kalemba, D., & Kunicka, A. (2003). Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Current medicinal chemistry, 10(10), 813-829.
- T. revolutus was antimicrobial against 11 bacteria and four fungi. From: Karaman, S., Digrak, M., Ravid, U., & Ilcim, A. (2001). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Thymus revolutus Celak from Turkey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 76(2), 183-186.
- Thymus algeriensis genuinus demonstrated a high inhibiting activity against eight bacterial strains and two species of fungus. Phenolic compounds demonstrated high antimicrobial activity. From: Chemat, S., Cherfouh, R., Meklati, B. Y., & Belanteur, K. (2012). Composition and microbial activity of thyme (Thymus algeriensis genuinus) essential oil. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 24(1), 5-11.
- Oregano (Origanum syriacum), thyme (Thymbra spicata), lavender (Lavandula stoechas), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and laurel (Laurus nobilis), inhibited growth of tomatoe fungus. From: Soylu, E. M., Soylu, S., & Kurt, S. (2006). Antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of various plants against tomato late blight disease agent Phytophthora infestans. Mycopathologia, 161(2), 119-128.
- Thyme and rosemary were bacteriostatic against Listeria monocytogenes, found in raw and processed foods. From: Giarratana, F., Muscolino, D., Ragonese, C., Beninati, C., Sciarrone, D., Ziino, G., … & Panebianco, A. (2016). Antimicrobial activity of combined thyme and rosemary essential oils against Listeria monocytogens in Italian mortadella packaged in modified atmosphere: Thyme & Rosemary EOs vs L. monocytogenes. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 1-8.
- Thymus fontanessi (thyme), Origanum glandulosum (oregano), Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal), and Lavandula stoechas (lavender) were antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA). Carvacrol, thymol, pulegone, fenchone, and camphor were the strongest constituents. From: Bekka-Hadji, F., Bombarda, I., & Touati, A. (2016). Antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of five essential oils from Algerian medicinal plants (Lamiaceae). Journal of Essential Oil Research, 1-10.
- Against meat bacteria in food: thyme, garlic and cinnamon showed the most antimicrobial activity. From: García-Díez, J., Alheiro, J., Falco, V., Fraqueza, M. J., & Patarata, L. (2016). Chemical characterization and antimicrobial properties of herbs and spices essential oils against pathogens and spoilage bacteria associated to dry-cured meat products. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 1-9.
- Ammoides pusilla and Thymus munbyanus were tested against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar, Thyphimurium, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes; and were more susceptible to T. munbyanus essential oil. A. pusilla was most effective for free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition. T. munbyanus showed strong anti-proliferative activity of human acute monocytic leukemia cells. From: Tefiani, C., Riazi, A., Youcefi, F., Aazza, S., Gago, C., Faleiro, M. L., … & Cortés-Giraldo, I. (2015). Ammoides pusilla (Apiaceae) and Thymus munbyanus (Lamiaceae) from Algeria essential oils: chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 27(2), 131-139.
- Mentha piperita (peppermint), Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal), Mentha spicata (spearmint), Pelargonium graveolens (geranuim), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Thymus leptobotrys (thyme), Thymus pallidus (thyme), Thymus satureioides (thyme) and Citrus limon (lemon) essential oils of Morrocco were steam distilled and minimum inhibitory concentrations were assessed against ten bacteria strains (Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus equinus and Streptococcus pyogenes), two yeasts (Candida albicans and Candida glabrata) and two fungi (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium funiculosum). Two thyme species showed the strongest antimicrobial properties while peppermint, spearmint and T. pallidus gave intermediary results. From: El Asbahani, A., Jilale, A., Voisin, S. N., Aït Addi, E. H., Casabianca, H., El Mousadik, A., … & Renaud, F. N. (2015). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of nine essential oils obtained by steam distillation of plants from the Souss-Massa Region (Morocco). Journal of Essential Oil Research, 27(1), 34-44.
- Origanum vulgare, Melissa officinalis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis, and Hyssopus officinalis were test and O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, and the highest rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans were pathogens affected by all six extracts. From: Benedec, D., Hanganu, D., Oniga, I., Tiperciuc, B., Olah, N. K., Raita, O., … & Vlase, L. (2015). Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci, 28(6), 2297-2303.
- Cloves, thyme, oregano, allspice, basil, rosemary, and marjoram showed antimicrobial effects on Shigella. From: Bagamboula, C. F., Uyttendaele, M., & Debevere, J. (2003). Antimicrobial effect of spices and herbs on Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri. Journal of Food Protection®, 66(4), 668-673.
- 26 plants were screened for antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella infantis. B. cereus was most affected by Azadirachta indica (neem), Cinnamomum cassia (cinnamon), Rumex nervosus (buckwheat), Ruta graveolens (rue) Thymus serpyllum (thyme) and Zingiber officinale (ginger); E. coli and S. infantis were only inhibited by Cinnamomum cassia extracts. From: Alzoreky, N. S., & Nakahara, K. (2003). Antibacterial activity of extracts from some edible plants commonly consumed in Asia. International journal of food microbiology, 80(3), 223-230.
- Thirteen essential oils from African plants were assessed. Three oils: Ocimum gratissimum, Thymus vulgaris and Ocimum basilicum, showed strong antifungal activity. From: Amvam Zollo, P. H., Biyiti, L., Tchoumbougnang, F., Menut, C., Lamaty, G., & Bouchet, P. H. (1998). Aromatic plants of tropical Central Africa, Part XXXII. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of thirteen essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 13(2), 107-114.
- 12 essential oils were tested against Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and Fusarium moniliforme. The oils of thyme, cinnamon, marigold, spearmint, basil, and quyssum completely inhibit all the test fungi. Caraway, anise, chamomile and hazanbul showed antifungal activity against certain species. From: Soliman, K. M., & Badeaa, R. I. (2002). Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi. Food and chemical toxicology, 40(11), 1669-1675.
- Melaleuca alternifolia, Thymus vulgaris, Mentha piperita and Rosmarinus officinalis were combined with conventional antimicrobials and assessed. From: Van Vuuren, S. F., Suliman, S., & Viljoen, A. M. (2009). The antimicrobial activity of four commercial essential oils in combination with conventional antimicrobials. Letters in applied microbiology, 48(4), 440-446.
- Oregano and thyme oils showed strong antibacterial activity. From: De Martino, L., De Feo, V., & Nazzaro, F. (2009). Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and mutagenic activities of seven Lamiaceae essential oils. Molecules, 14(10), 4213-4230.
- Tea tree, lavender, mint, thyme, and juniper showed varying degrees of in-vitro action against S. aureus. From: Nelson, R. R. (1997). In-vitro activities of five plant essential oils against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 40(2), 305-306.
- Pimpinella anisum (anise), Pëumus boldus (boldus), Hedeoma multiflora (mountain thyme), Syzygium aromaticum (clove), and Lippia turbinate (poleo) essential oils demonstrated antifungal activity against Aspergillus section Flavi in sterile maize grain. From: Bluma, R. V., & Etcheverry, M. G. (2008). Application of essential oils in maize grain: Impact on Aspergillus section Flavi growth parameters and aflatoxin accumulation. Food Microbiology, 25(2), 324-334.
- Thyme essential oil and the thymol and carvacrol constituents showed inhibition of Shigella sp. From: Bagamboula, C. F., Uyttendaele, M., & Debevere, J. (2004). Inhibitory effect of thyme and basil essential oils, carvacrol, thymol, estragol, linalool and p-cymene towards Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri. Food microbiology, 21(1), 33-42.
- A variety of 31 essential oils were tested against over 600 vaginal organisms with spanish oregano, ceylon cinnamon, Chinese cinnamon, thyme, savory, creeping thyme and turpentine resin showing the strongest activity. From: Arnal-Schnebelen, B., Hadji-Minaglou, F., Peroteau, J. F., Ribeyre, F., & De Billerbeck, V. G. (2004). Essential oils in infectious gynaecological disease: a statistical study of 658 cases. International Journal of Aromatherapy, 14(4), 192-197.
- Diphenyliodonium chloride (DIC) and thymol reduce the growth and survivability of Campylobacter species in vitro. From: Anderson, R. C., Krueger, N. A., Byrd, J. A., Harvey, R. B., Callaway, T. R., Edrington, T. S., & Nisbet, D. J. (2009). Effects of thymol and diphenyliodonium chloride against Campylobacter spp. during pure and mixed culture in vitro. Journal of applied microbiology, 107(4), 1258-1268.
- Salad preservation was lengthened with the essential oils of thyme verbena, thyme, oregano, ajowan, tea tree, clove, sage, and rosemary. From: Molinos, A. C., Abriouel, H., López, R. L., Omar, N. B., Valdivia, E., & Gálvez, A. (2009). Enhanced bactericidal activity of enterocin AS-48 in combination with essential oils, natural bioactive compounds and chemical preservatives against Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat salad. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47(9), 2216-2223.
- The fungus; Penicillium digitatum, was inhibited completely by oregano, thyme, dictamus, and marjoram essential oils at low concentrations. From: Daferera, D. J., Ziogas, B. N., & Polissiou, M. G. (2000). GC-MS analysis of essential oils from some Greek aromatic plants and their fungitoxicity on Penicillium digitatum. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(6), 2576-2581.
- Roman chamomile, curry plant, hyssop, lavandin, marjoram sweet, orange mint, spearmint, monarda, oregano, rosemary, rue sage, tansy, tarragon, thyme common and yarrow showed vapour activity against the fungi that causes ringworm. From: Inouye, S., Uchida, K., & Abe, S. (2006). Volatile composition and vapour activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes of 36 aromatic herbs cultivated in Chichibu district in Japan. International Journal of Aromatherapy, 16(3), 159-168.
- This article discussed the reduction of oral bacteria with eugenol and thyme. From: Meeker, H., & Linke, H. A. (1988). The antibacterial action of eugenol, thyme oil, and related essential oils used in dentistry. Compendium (Newtown, Pa.), 9(1).
- Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano) , Origanum vulgare (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) essential oils showed antifungal activity. From: Pozzatti, P., Scheid, L. A., Spader, T. B., Atayde, M. L., Santurio, J. M., & Alves, S. H. (2008). In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. Canadian journal of microbiology, 54(11), 950-956.
- Mentha piperita (peppermint), M. spicata (spearmint), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Origanum vulgare (oregano), O. applii (oregano), Aloysia triphylla (lemon verbena), Ocimum gratissimum (basil), and O. basilicum (basil) were studied and demonstrated varying degrees of antimicrobial activity. From: Sartoratto, A., Machado, A. L. M., Delarmelina, C., Figueira, G. M., Duarte, M. C. T., & Rehder, V. L. G. (2004). Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants used in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 35(4), 275-280.
- Ginger, thyme, hyssop, and sandalwood essential oils exhibited high levels of virucidal activity against herpes type one. From: Schnitzler, P., Koch, C., & Reichling, J. (2007). Susceptibility of drug-resistant clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 strains to essential oils of ginger, thyme, hyssop, and sandalwood. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 51(5), 1859-1862.
- Bay, cinnamon, grapefruit, lemongrass, thyme, clary sage, wintergreen, clove, allspice, and camphor essential oils showed varying degrees of inhibition against MRSA and MSSA bacterial samples from hospital patients. From: Sharma, P. U. J. A., Mack, J. P., & Rojtman, A. (2013). Ten highly effective essential oils inhibit growth of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Int. J. Pharm. Pharmacol, 5(1), 52-54.
- Among 49 essential oils tested, palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), red thyme (Thymus zygis), cinnamon leaf (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), and clove buds (Eugenia caryophyllata) were the most antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea. From: Wilson, C. L., Solar, J. M., El Ghaouth, A., & Wisniewski, M. E. (1997). Rapid evaluation of plant extracts and essential oils for antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea. Plant disease, 81(2), 204-210.
- Origanum vulgare (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) , Mentha piperita (peppermint), and Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) were tested against 32 erythromycin-resistant streptococci; oregano, thyme, and the carvacrol constituent showed the strongest antimicrobial activity. From: Magi, G., Marini, E., & Facinelli, B. (2015). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and carvacrol, and synergy of carvacrol and erythromycin, against clinical, erythromycin-resistant Group A Streptococci. Frontiers in microbiology, 6, 165.
- Constituents were studied for inhibiting postharvest fungi, including anethole, p-anisaldehyde, carvacrol, carvone, 1,8-cineole, limonene, myrcene, α-phellandrene and α-pinene. Carvacrol showed the strongest results. From: Caccioni, D. R., & Guizzardi, M. (1994). Inhibition of germination and growth of fruit and vegetable postharvest pathogenic fungi by essential oil components. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 6(2), 173-179.
- Citrus aurantium (bergamot), C. limon (lemon), Lavandula angustifolia (lavender), Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile), Mentha piperita (peppermint), M. spicata (spearmint), Ocimum basilicum (basil), Origanum vulgare(oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), and Salvia officinalis (sage) along with their constituents were tested against human pathogenic bacteria. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil and carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested constituents. Other significant constituents included: camphor, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol. From: Soković, M., Glamočlija, J., Marin, P. D., Brkić, D., & van Griensven, L. J. (2010). Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model. Molecules, 15(11), 7532-7546.
- Piper nigrum (black pepper), Syzygium aromaticum (clove), Pelargonium graveolens (geranium), Myristica fragrans (nutmeg), Origanum vulgare (oregano), and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) were assessed for antibacterial activity against 25 different genera of bacteria. From: Dorman, H. J. D., & Deans, S. G. (2000). Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. Journal of applied microbiology, 88(2), 308-316.
- Cinnamon, oregano, savory, thyme, clove, lemongrass, cajuput, and allspice showed antibacterial activity against meat spoilage bacteria. From: Oussalah, M., Caillet, S., Saucier, L., & Lacroix, M. (2006). Antimicrobial effects of selected plant essential oils on the growth of a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from meat. Meat science, 73(2), 236-244.
- Limonene and thymol were strongest against Fusarium verticillioides in vitro. From: Dambolena, J. S., López, A. G., Cánepa, M. C., Theumer, M. G., Zygadlo, J. A., & Rubinstein, H. R. (2008). Inhibitory effect of cyclic terpenes (limonene, menthol, menthone and thymol) on Fusarium verticillioides MRC 826 growth and fumonisin B1 biosynthesis. Toxicon, 51(1), 37-44.
- Thyme essential oil and its component thymol showed activity against the fungus causing mucormycoses. From: de Lira Mota, K. S., de Oliveira Pereira, F., de Oliveira, W. A., Lima, I. O., & de Oliveira Lima, E. (2012). Antifungal activity of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil and its constituent phytochemicals against Rhizopus oryzae: interaction with ergosterol. Molecules, 17(12), 14418-14433.
- Thyme and cumin essential oils contained the strongest antimicrobial activity against a variety of tested pathogens in vitro. From: Farag, R. S., Daw, Z. Y., Hewedi, F. M., & El-Baroty, G. S. A. (1989). Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian spice essential oils. Journal of food protection, 52(9), 665-667.
- The in vitro study demonstrated antibiofilm activity of carvacrol, geraniol, and thymol against Candida. From: Dalleau, S., Cateau, E., Bergès, T., Berjeaud, J. M., & Imbert, C. (2008). In vitro activity of terpenes against Candida biofilms. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 31(6), 572-576.
- Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Ocimum gratissimum (basil) and Eugenia caryophyllata (clove) were particularly antibacterial with a large spectra action, and Melaleuca viridiflora (cajuput) had also a high inhibitory effect especially on Gram positive bacteria. From: Ramanoelina, A. R., Terrom, G. P., Bianchini, J. P., & Coulanges, P. (1986). [Antibacterial action of essential oils extracted from Madagascar plants]. Archives de l’Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, 53(1), 217-226.
- Broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities were observed from cinnamon, geranium, cumin, thyme, basil and lemongrass essential oils against the following tobacco plant pathogens: Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum destructivum and Phytophthora parasiticasuperior. From: Lu, M., Han, Z., Xu, Y., & Yao, L. (2013). Effects of essential oils from Chinese indigenous aromatic plants on mycelial growth and morphogenesis of three phytopathogens. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 28(2), 84-92.
- Antibacterial abilities of 96 essential oils and their constituents were assessed. Marigold, ginger, jasmine, patchouli, gardenia, cedarwood, carrot seed, celery seed, mugwort, spikenard, and orange bitter oils along with the constituents of cinnamaldehyde, estragole, carvacrol, benzaldehyde, citral, thymol, eugenol, perillaldehyde, carvone R, and geranyl acetate were strongest against C. jejuni. Those most active against E. coli were oregano, thyme, cinnamon, palmarosa, bay leaf, clove bud, lemon grass, and allspice oils and the constituents: carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, eugenol, salicylaldehyde, geraniol, isoeugenol, citral, perillaldehyde, and estragole. Those most active against L. monocytogenes were gardenia, cedarwood, bay leaf, clove bud, oregano, cinnamon, allspice, thyme, and patchouli and the constituents of cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, citral, geraniol, perillaldehyde, carvone S, estragole, and salicylaldehyde. Those most active against S. enterica were thyme, oregano, cinnamon, clove bud, allspice, bay leaf, palmarosa, and marjoram oils as well as thymol, cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, eugenol, salicylaldehyde, geraniol, isoeugenol, terpineol, perillaldehyde, and estragole. From: Friedman, M., Henika, P. R., & Mandrell, R. E. (2002). Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. Journal of Food Protection®, 65(10), 1545-1560.
- Thyme, cinnamon, bay, clove, almond (bitter), lovage, pimento, marjoram, angelica and nutmeg, and geranium showed strong inhibitory action against multiple bacteria. From: Deans, S. G., & Ritchie, G. (1987). Antibacterial properties of plant essential oils. International journal of food microbiology, 5(2), 165-180.
- Helichrysum stoechas, Polygonum equisetiforme, Pulicaria crispa, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Thymus capitatus exhibited strongest activity against gram positive bacteria: H. stoechas and P. harmala. exhibited the strongest activity against gram negative bacteria. Peganum harmala, P. crispa, and T. capitatus showed strong anticandidal activity. From: Abdelah Bogdadi, H. A., Kokoska, L., Havlik, J., Kloucek, P., Rada, V., & Vorisek, K. (2007). In Vitro. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Libyan Medicinal Plant Extracts. Pharmaceutical Biology, 45(5), 386-391.
- Thymus vulgaris showed strong anticandidal activity against the Clotramazole resistant pathogen. From: Bonjar, G. S. (2004). Inhibition of Clotrimazole-resistant Candida albicans by plants used in Iranian folkloric medicine. Fitoterapia, 75(1), 74-76.
- Tested essential oils showed antifungal activity against tested fungi. From: Gucwa, K., Milewski, S., Dymerski, T., & Szweda, P. (2018). Investigation of the Antifungal Activity and Mode of Action of Thymus vulgaris, Citrus limonum, Pelargonium graveolens, Cinnamomum cassia, Ocimum basilicum, and Eugenia caryophyllus Essential Oils. Molecules, 23(5), 1116.
- Cinnamon, lemon, basil, thyme, geranium, and clove showed high antifungal activity against Candida ssp. in vitro. From: Szweda, P., Gucwa, K., Kurzyk, E., Romanowska, E., Dzierżanowska-Fangrat, K., Jurek, A. Z., … & Milewski, S. (2015). Essential oils, silver nanoparticles and propolis as alternative agents against fluconazole resistant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei clinical isolates. Indian journal of microbiology, 55(2), 175-183.
- Essential oils from eucalyptus, tea tree, and thyme, and their isolated constituents showed antiviral activity against herpes in vitro. From: Astani, A., Reichling, J., & Schnitzler, P. (2010). Comparative study on the antiviral activity of selected monoterpenes derived from essential oils. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 24(5), 673-679.
- Ten minutes of exposure of vapors from essential oils Citrus bergamia, Eucalyptus globulus, and the constituents citronellol and eugenol were very active against the influenza virus. Vapors of Pelargonium graveolens, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cymbopogon flexuosus were very active with 30 minutes of exposure. Further, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus bergamia, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Thymus vulgaris liquid essential oils displayed 100% inhibitory activity at a 3.1 µL/mL concentration. From: Vimalanathan, S., & Hudson, J. (2014). Anti-influenza virus activity of essential oils and vapors. American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products, 2(1), 47-53.
- Geranium, monarda, nutmeg, oregano and thyme essential oils were evaluated for, and all demonstrated antioxidant capabilities. From: Damien Dorman, H. J., Deans, S. G., Noble, R. C., & Surai, P. (1995). Evaluation in vitro of plant essential oils as natural antioxidants. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 7(6), 645-651.
- 423 essential oils from 48 different botanical families were evaluated for their antioxidant activities as free radical scavenging agents. Results identified oils of the botanical families Lamiaceae and Myrtaceae as the most effective antioxidants, with thymol, eugenol, and carvacrol being the major constituents. From: Anthony, K. P., Deolu‐Sobogun, S. A., & Saleh, M. A. (2012). Comprehensive assessment of antioxidant activity of essential oils. Journal of food science, 77(8), C839-C843.
- Species of thyme, savory, sweet marjoram, and oregano showed varying types of antioxidant abilities. From: Dorman, H. D., Bachmayer, O., Kosar, M., & Hiltunen, R. (2004). Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from selected Lamiaceae species grown in Turkey. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(4), 762-770.
- Ocimum basilicum (basil) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) demonstrated antioxidant powers with the following constituents showing the strongest activity: eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, and 4-allylphenol. From: Lee, S. J., Umano, K., Shibamoto, T., & Lee, K. G. (2005). Identification of volatile components in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) and their antioxidant properties. Food Chemistry, 91(1), 131-137.
- The following dried herbs tested contained high amounts of antioxidant content: oregano, sage, peppermint, thyme, lemon balm, clove, allspice, cinnamon, and a few additional Chinese medicinal herbs. From: Dragland, S., Senoo, H., Wake, K., Holte, K., & Blomhoff, R. (2003). Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants. The Journal of nutrition, 133(5), 1286-1290.
- Of 25 essential oils tested, thyme and clove showed the highest antioxidant activity; indicated were their thymol and eugenol components.. Cinnamon, basil, bergamot, eucalyptus, chamomile, bitter orange, and aloe vera were also effective. From: Wei, A., & Shibamoto, T. (2010). Antioxidant/lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and chemical compositions of selected essential oils. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 58(12), 7218-7225
- Of oils tested: rosemary, cumin, anise, thyme, and sweetgum essential oils showed the strongest antioxidant radical scavenging activity. From: Topal, U., Sasaki, M., Goto, M., & Otles, S. (2008). Chemical compositions and antioxidant properties of essential oils from nine species of Turkish plants obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and steam distillation. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 59(7-8), 619-634.
- Thymus spicata and its constituents of thymol and carvacrol inhibited human lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage. From: Aydın, S., Başaran, A. A., & Başaran, N. (2005). Modulating effects of thyme and its major ingredients on oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 53(4), 1299-1305.
- Thyme possessed microbicidal activities, especially against Gram positive bacteria, likely related to the carvacrol constituent. This may be usable with products as an antiseptic and preservative. From: Juliano, C., Mattana, A., & Usai, M. (2000). Composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Thymus herba-barona Loisel growing wild in Sardinia. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 12(4), 516-522.
- Of the herbs studied, thyme and basil demonstrated the most antioxidant activity. From: Lee, K. G., & Shibamoto, T. (2002). Determination of antioxidant potential of volatile extracts isolated from various herbs and spices. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(17), 4947-4952.
ANALGESIC / ANTI-NOCICEPTIVE
- The essential oils of bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso) clary sage (Salvia sclarea), thyme (linalool chemotype of Thymus vulgaris), lavender (Lavandula hybrida reydovan and Lavandula angustifolia) had antinociceptive effects on the mouse hindpaw. From: Sakurada, T., Kuwahata, H., Katsuyama, S., Komatsu, T., Morrone, L. A., Corasaniti, M. T., … & Sakurada, S. (2009). Intraplantar Injection Of Bergamot Essential Oil Into The Mouse Hindpaw: Effects On Capsaicin‐Induced Nociceptive Behaviors. International Review of Neurobiology, 85, 237-248.
- There were antinociceptive and local anaesthetic effects of thymol and menthol in rats. From: Haeseler, G., Maue, D., Grosskreutz, J., Bufler, J., Nentwig, B., Piepenbrock, S., … & Leuwer, M. (2002). Voltage-dependent block of neuronal and skeletal muscle sodium channels by thymol and menthol. European journal of anaesthesiology, 19(08), 571-579.
- Thymus vulgaris extract was antispasmodic action on guinea pig ileum. From: Babaei, M., Abarghoei, M. E., Ansari, R., Vafaei, A. A., Taherian, A. A., Akhavan, M. M., … & Mousavi, S. (2008). Antispasmodic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Thymus vulgaris on the guinea-pig ileum. Natural product research, 22(13), 1143-1150.
- Thymol has a spasmolytic effect on guinea pig stomach in vitro. From: Beer, A. M., Lukanov, J., & Sagorchev, P. (2007). Effect of Thymol on the spontaneous contractile activity of the smooth muscles. Phytomedicine, 14(1), 65-69.
- Thyme extract had an antispasmodic effect on rat ileum and trachea, with thymol being a significant constituent. From: Begrow, F., Engelbertz, J., Feistel, B., Lehnfeld, R., Bauer, K., & Verspohl, E. J. (2010). Impact of thymol in thyme extracts on their antispasmodic action and ciliary clearance. Planta medica, 76(04), 311-318.
- Thymus vulgaris had a relaxant effect on guinea pig trachea. From: Boskabady, M. A., Aslani, M. R., & Kiani, S. (2006). Relaxant effect of Thymus vulgaris on guinea‐pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism (s). Phytotherapy Research, 20(1), 28-33.
INSECTICIDAL / LARVICIDAL / PESTICIDAL
- Thirteen oils from 41 plants (camphor, thyme, amyris, lemon, cedarwood, frankincense, dill, myrtle, juniper, black pepper, verbena, helichrysum and sandalwood) induced 100% mortality after 24 hours of mosquito larvae. From: Amer, A., & Mehlhorn, H. (2006). Larvicidal effects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera, Culicidae). Parasitology research, 99(4), 466-472.
- Thyme, savory and spearmint were active against the mite: Varroa, without being toxic to honeybee colonies. From: Ariana, A., Ebadi, R., & Tahmasebi, G. (2002). Laboratory evaluation of some plant essences to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology, 27(4), 319-327.
- Against larvae Spodoptera littoralis the following oils showed insecticidal activity: catnip, white cedar, clary sage, thyme, marjoram, patchouli, pennyroyal, lemon mint, Melissa, and lavender. From: Pavela, R. (2005). Insecticidal activity of some essential oils against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis. Fitoterapia, 76(7), 691-696.
- Essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus, Lavender officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris showed repellent activities against the mosquito: Culex pipiens pallens. Thyme was the strongest and constituents that were effective included alpha-terpinene, thymol, p-cymene, carvacrol, and linalool. From: Choi, W. S., Park, B. S., Ku, S. K., & Lee, S. E. (2002). Repellent activities of essential oils and monoterpenes against Culex pipiens pallens. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 18(4), 348-351.
- A blend of thyme and rosemary was larvicidal against the gypsy moth. From: Moretti, M. D., Sanna-Passino, G., Demontis, S., & Bazzoni, E. (2002). Essential oil formulations useful as a new tool for insect pest control. AAPs PharmSciTech, 3(2), 64-74.
- Against the red mite, the following oils were acaricidal: bay, cade, cinnamon, clove bud, coriander, horseradish, lime, mustard, pennyroyal, pimento berry, spearmint, thyme red and thyme white oils. From: Kim, S. I., Yi, J. H., Tak, J. H., & Ahn, Y. J. (2004). Acaricidal activity of plant essential oils against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae). Veterinary parasitology, 120(4), 297-304.
- Against the sciarid fly, good insecticidal activity was achieved with essential oils of caraway seed, lemongrass, mandarin, nutmeg, cade (Juniperus oxycedrus), spearmint, cumin, and red thyme. From: Park, I. K., Kim, J. N., Lee, Y. S., Lee, S. G., Ahn, Y. J., & Shin, S. C. (2008). Toxicity of plant essential oils and their components against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 101(1), 139-144. solution with paw paw, thymol, and tea tree oil was 100% effective in eliminating head lice in participants. From: McCage, C. M., Ward, S. M., Paling, C. A., Fisher, D. A., Flynn, P. J., & McLaughlin, J. L. (2002). Development of a paw paw herbal shampoo for the removal of head lice. Phytomedicine, 9(8), 743-748.
ANTI-PARASITE / ACARICIDAL
- T. vulgaris was effective against the protozoan parasite, E. histolytica. From: Behnia, M., Haghighi, A., Komeylizadeh, H., Tabaei, S. J. S., & Abadi, A. (2008). Inhibitory effects of Iranian Thymus vulgaris extracts on in vitro growth of Entamoeba histolytica. The Korean journal of parasitology, 46(3), 153-156.
- Thymol was potent against bovine ticks. From: da Silveira Novelino, A. M., Daemon, E., & Soares, G. L. G. (2007). Evaluation of the acaricide effect of thymol, menthol, salicylic acid, and methyl salicylate on Boophilus microplus (Canestrini 1887)(Acari: Ixodidae) larvae. Parasitology research, 101(3), 809.
- Thymol was effective against the tick: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. From: de Oliveira Monteiro, C. M., Daemon, E., Silva, A. M. R., Maturano, R., & Amaral, C. (2010). Acaricide and ovicide activities of thymol on engorged females and eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Parasitology research, 106(3), 615-619.
- Thyme and oregano tea infusions affected LDL in vitro. From: Kulišić, T., Kriško, A., Dragović-Uzelac, V., Miloš, M., & Pifat, G. (2007). The effects of essential oils and aqueous tea infusions of oregano (Origanum vulgare L. spp. hirtum), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) on the copper-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins. International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 58(2), 87-93.
- A compilation of research showed the following herbs to have a hypolipidemic effect: yarrow, onion, garlic, dill, celery, burdock, oats, barberry, cabbage, chili pepper, safflower, chicory, chickpea, bitter orange, orange, guggul, coriander, cranberry, melon, pumpkin, artichoke, ginseng, eugenol, schelelecht, ginkgo, soy, walnut, apple, nutmeg, red yeast rice, miswak, evening primrose, basil, bulacy, orchis, avocado, plantain, blond plotitago, green bean, purslane, black cherry, pomegranate, milk thistle, brinjal, tomato, tamarind, thea, thyme, fenugreek, bilberry, grape, ginger, and corn. From: Rouhi-Boroujeni, H., Rouhi-Boroujeni, H., Khoddami, M., Khazraei, H. R., Dehkordil, E. B., & Rafieian-Kopaei, M. (2017). Hypolipidemic herbals with diuretic effects: A systematic review. In Biol. Sci (Vol. 8, pp. 21-28).
- Thyme was liver protective in aging mice. From: Deans, S. G., Noble, R. C., Penzes, L., & Imre, S. G. (1993). Promotional effects of plant volatile oils on the polyunsaturated fatty acid status during aging. Age, 16(2), 71-74.
- Carvacrol protects the liver against defects caused by ischemia and reperfusion without being toxic in rats. From: Canbek, M., Uyanoglu, M., Bayramoglu, G., Senturk, H., Erkasap, N., Koken, T., … & Baser, K. H. C. (2008). Effects of carvacrol on defects of ischemia-reperfusion in the rat liver. Phytomedicine, 15(6), 447-452.
- Rosemary and thyme extracts were weight controlling, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic in vivo. From: Hegazy, A. M., Abdel-Azeem, A. S., Zeidan, H. M., Ibrahim, K. S., & Sayed, E. E. (2018). Hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective activities of rosemary and thyme in gentamicin-treated rats. Human & experimental toxicology, 37(4), 420-430.
- Thyme and oregano essential reduced inflammation and colitis in mice. From: Bukovská, A., Cikoš, Š., Juhás, Š., Il’ková, G., Rehák, P., & Koppel, J. (2007). Effects of a combination of thyme and oregano essential oils on TNBS-induced colitis in mice. Mediators of inflammation, 2007.
- Cinnamon, clove, oregano, and thyme at the right dose can reduce E. coli with minimal intestine cell cytotoxicity. From: Dušan, F., Marián, S., Katarína, D., & Dobroslava, B. (2006). Essential oils—their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and effect on intestinal cell viability. Toxicology in vitro, 20(8), 1435-1445.
- In a double blind, randomized clinical trial of 40 patients, a thyme extract taken with methadone for 15 days helped reduced opium withdrawal symptoms. From: Sayyah, M., Siahpoush, A., & Rahim, F. (2017). The role of alcoholic extract of Zataria multiflora Boiss in controlling opium withdrawal symptoms: a randomized, double-blind study. Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 3, 27-33.
- Inhalation of lavender and hyssop oil decreased mobility in mice that were treated with caffeine. Inhalation of ginger, thyme, peppermint, and cypress oil increased mobility. From: Lim, W. C., Seo, J. M., Lee, C. I., Pyo, H. B., & Lee, B. C. (2005). Stimulative and sedative effects of essential oils upon inhalation in mice. Archives of pharmacal research, 28(7), 770-774.
- Thyme, cinnamon, and rose essential oils exhibited the best antibacterial activities towards Propionibacterium acnes and thyme essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. From: Zu, Y., Yu, H., Liang, L., Fu, Y., Efferth, T., Liu, X., & Wu, N. (2010). Activities of ten essential oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 cancer cells. Molecules, 15(5), 3200-3210.
- Thymus broussonettii and its carvacrol constituent showed in vitro cytotoxic activity against tumor cells resistant to chemotherapy. From: Ait M’Barek, L., Ait Mouse, H., Jaâfari, A., Aboufatima, R., Benharref, A., Kamal, M., … & Chait, A. (2007). Cytotoxic effect of essential oil of thyme (Thymus broussonettii) on the IGR-OV1 tumor cells resistant to chemotherapy. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 40(11), 1537-1544.
- Essential oils of sage, rosemary, thyme, juniper, pine, turpentine, and eucalyptus and their constituents of thujone, eucalyptol, camphor, borneol, thymol, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, bornylacetate, and menthol inhibited bone resorption. From: Mühlbauer, R. C., Lozano, A., Palacio, S., Reinli, A., & Felix, R. (2003). Common herbs, essential oils, and monoterpenes potently modulate bone metabolism. Bone, 32(4), 372-380.
- Dried rosemary and higher concentration of dried thyme significantly inhibited arterial thrombus formation. Both rosemary and thyme significantly inhibited platelet reactivity and enhanced vasodilation. From: Naemura, A., Ura, M., Yamashita, T., Arai, R., & Yamamoto, J. (2008). Long-term intake of rosemary and common thyme herbs inhibits experimental thrombosis without prolongation of bleeding time. Thrombosis research, 122(4), 517-522.
- Thyme and rosemary were antithrombotic in vitro and in vivo. From: Yamamoto, J., Yamada, K., Naemura, A., Yamashita, T., & Arai, R. (2005). Testing various herbs for antithrombotic effect. Nutrition, 21(5), 580-587.
- Thyme and spearmint essential oils showed great antifungal potential and could be used as natural preservatives and fungicides. From: Soković, M. D., Vukojević, J., Marin, P. D., Brkić, D. D., Vajs, V., & Van Griensven, L. J. (2009). Chemical composition of essential oils of thymus and mentha species and their antifungal activities. Molecules, 14(1), 238-249.
- Thyme essential oil showed the strongest activity against citrus fruit fungi. From: Arras, G., & Usai, M. (2001). Fungitoxic activity of 12 essential oils against four postharvest citrus pathogens: chemical analysis of Thymus capitatus oil and its effect in subatmospheric pressure conditions. Journal of Food Protection, 64(7), 1025-1029.
- Thyme essential oil and its constituents of thymol and carvacrol were effective against food bacteria in vitro. From: Cosentino, S., Tuberoso, C. I. G., Pisano, B., Satta, M. L., Mascia, V., Arzedi, E., & Palmas, F. (1999). In‐vitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Sardinian thymus essential oils. Letters in applied microbiology, 29(2), 130-135.
- Essential oils of cilantro, coriander, cinnamon, oregano, rosemary, sage, clove, thyme, lemongrass, turmeric, mint, basil, and constituents of linalool, cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, terpinene, cymene, alpha/beta pinene, bornyl acetate, camphor, 1,8-cineole, alpha terpeneol, geraniol, perrilaldehyde, and eugenol have demonstrated food preserving potential. From: Burt, S. (2004). Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review. International journal of food microbiology, 94(3), 223-253.
- In a double blind randomized clinical trial of 68 elderly, a a chlorhexidine-thymol varnish reduced the incidence of root caries. From: Baca, P., Clavero, J., Baca, A. P., González-Rodríguez, M. P., Bravo, M., & Valderrama, M. J. (2009). Effect of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish on root caries in a geriatric population: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Journal of dentistry, 37(9), 679-685.
- A randomized double blind longitudinal study of 102 elderly showed chlorhexidine, thymol, and fluoride varnishes reduced root caries. From: Brailsford, S. R., Fiske, J., Gilbert, S., Clark, D., & Beighton, D. (2002). The effects of the combination of chlorhexidine/thymol-and fluoride-containing varnishes on the severity of root caries lesions in frail institutionalised elderly people. Journal of dentistry, 30(7), 319-324.
- In an open trial of 62 patients, a cough syrup made from ivy leaves, thyme herb, aniseed and marshmallow root was effective. From: Büechi, S., Vögelin, R., von Eiff, M. M., Ramos, M., & Melzer, J. (2005). Open trial to assess aspects of safety and efficacy of a combined herbal cough syrup with ivy and thyme. Complementary Medicine Research, 12(6), 328-332.
- In a double blind, randomized, clinical trial of 52 pediatric patients, a cough syrup containing a thyme like plant reduced cough safely in young children. From: Hosseini, F., Mahjoub, H., Amanati, A., Fazlian, M. M., & Sedighi, I. (2016). Comparison of Zataria multiflora Extract Syrup and Diphenhydramine in the Treatment of Common Cold-Induced Cough in Children: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Clinical Trial. Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 4(3).
- In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, study with 150 patients, an extract with thyme and primrose was effective and tolerable in treating acute bronchitis. The author did a similar study with 189 patients a year later, with a similar outcome. From: Gruenwald, J., Graubaum, H. J., & Busch, R. (2005). Efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of thyme and primrose root in patients with acute bronchitis. Arzneimittelforschung, 55(11), 669-676.
- A review of 1,234 children ages 2-17 had reduced bronchial symptoms with age appropriate doses of a syrup containing thyme and ivy. From: Marzian, O. (2007). Treatment of acute bronchitis in children and adolescents. Non-interventional postmarketing surveillance study confirms the benefit and safety of a syrup made of extracts from thyme and ivy leaves. MMW Fortschritte der Medizin, 149(27-28 Suppl), 69-74.
- The herbal brand Bronchipret containing thyme extract was just as effective in treating bronchial symptoms as synthetic drugs in a matched-pair comparison study of 7783 patients. From: Ernst, E., März, R., & Sieder, C. (1997). A controlled multi-centre study of herbal versus synthetic secretolytic drugs for acute bronchitis. Phytomedicine, 4(4), 287-293.
- In a small human study, carvacrol tablets taken over two months reduced asthma symptoms over the placebo. From: Alavinezhad, A., Khazdair, M. R., & Boskabady, M. H. (2018). Possible therapeutic effect of carvacrol on asthmatic patients: A randomized, double blind, placebo‐controlled, Phase II clinical trial. Phytotherapy Research, 32(1), 151-159.
- Tea preparations from the following plants showed in vitro antidiabetic, antioxidant activities: green tea, peppermint, black, thyme, olive leaf, sage, absinthium, blackberry, and roselle. From: Büyükbalci, A., & El, S. N. (2008). Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects, antioxidant activities and phenol contents of some herbal teas. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 63(1), 27-33.
SKIN / WOUND HEALING / BURNS
- Thymus oil increased the formation of new tissue in burn wound healing in rats. From: Dursun, N., Liman, N., Özyazgan, I., Günes, I., & Saraymen, R. (2003). Role of thymus oil in burn wound healing. Journal of Burn Care & Research, 24(6), 395-399.
- In a study of 50 patients with wound ulcers, an herbal ointment was applied twice a day for 28 days. It contained Symphytum officinale, Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla, Bellis perennis, Achillea millefolium, Salvia officinalis, Hypericum perforatum, Olea europaea, Lavandula officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cympobogon martini, Origanum vulgare, Eugenia caryophyllata, Thymus vulgaris ct. thymol, Cera alba, honey, and glycerol. Results showed significant healing of wounds. From: Oreščanin, V. (2016). Treatment of pressure ulcers with Bioapifit® wound healing herbal ointment-a preliminary study. IJRDO: J Biol Sci, 2(10), 1-15.
- The active group who massaged a blend of thyme, rosemary, lavender, and cedarwood in carrier oils on their scalp daily, had reduced hair loss. From: Hay, I. C., Jamieson, M., & Ormerod, A. D. (1998). Randomized trial of aromatherapy: successful treatment for alopecia areata. Archives of dermatology, 134(11), 1349-1352.
- In a study of 40 patients with alopecia, the essential oil treatment in a carrier oil (with thyme, rosemary, lavender, evening primrose oil and cedarwood) was significantly more effective than the placebo. From: ÖZMEN, İ., ÇALIŞKAN, E., Ercan, A. R. C. A., AÇIKGÖZ, G., & Erol, K. O. Ç. (2015). Efficacy of aromatherapy in the treatment of localized alopecia areata: A double-blind placebo controlled study. Gulhane Medical Journal, 57(3).
- Rosemary and thyme extracts were weight controlling, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic in vivo. From: Hegazy, A. M., Abdel-Azeem, A. S., Zeidan, H. M., Ibrahim, K. S., & Sayed, E. E. (2018). Hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective activities of rosemary and thyme in gentamicin-treated rats. Human & experimental toxicology, 37(4), 420-430.
By: Kathy Sadowski
Last Updated: 2/18/2020