Thymol is a phenol as found in ajowan, oregano and thyme.
Phenols are potent chemicals with strong therapeutic actions, but safety concerns: overuse can be toxic to the liver or genotoxic. Phenols can also be a skin and mucous membrane irritant.
Links to Plants Containing Thymol
The listings of research below represent a compilation of scientific articles found on the topic, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. This compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use of any herb listed.
- The constituent thymol was reviewed from multiple studies related to improving reproductive performances, nutrient bioavailability, immunity and general health of livestock. From: El-Hack, M. E. A., Alagawany, M., Farag, M. R., Tiwari, R., Karthik, K., Dhama, K., … & Adel, M. (2016). Beneficial impacts of thymol essential oil on health and production of animals, fish and poultry: a review. J. Essent. Oil Res, 10(10412905.2016), 1153002.
- A review of scientific research on the thymol constituent is provided. From: Marchese, A., Orhan, I. E., Daglia, M., Barbieri, R., Di Lorenzo, A., Nabavi, S. F., … & Nabavi, S. M. (2016). Antibacterial and antifungal activities of thymol: A brief review of the literature. Food chemistry, 210, 402-414.
ANTIMICROBIAL / ANTIBACTERIAL / ANTIFUNGAL
- This article summarized antimicrobial research on essential oils with strong research on topical and antiseptic uses, as penetration enhancers, and in fighting medicine resistant species. From: Solórzano-Santos, F., & Miranda-Novales, M. G. (2012). Essential oils from aromatic herbs as antimicrobial agents. Current opinion in biotechnology, 23(2), 136-141.
- The constituents of eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene and γ-terpinene were effective against oral bacteria. From: Miladi, H., Zmantar, T., Kouidhi, B., Al Qurashi, Y. M. A., Bakhrouf, A., Chaabouni, Y., … & Chaieb, K. (2017). Synergistic effect of eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene and γ-terpinene on inhibition of drug resistance and biofilm formation of oral bacteria. Microbial pathogenesis, 112, 156-163.
- Thyme and rosemary were bacteriostatic against Listeria monocytogenes, found in raw and processed foods. Active constituents were thymol and p-cymene in thyme, a-pinene, camphor, eucalyptol in rosemary. From: Giarratana, F., Muscolino, D., Ragonese, C., Beninati, C., Sciarrone, D., Ziino, G., … & Panebianco, A. (2016). Antimicrobial activity of combined thyme and rosemary essential oils against Listeria monocytogens in Italian mortadella packaged in modified atmosphere: Thyme & Rosemary EOs vs L. monocytogenes. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 1-8.
- Thymus fontanessi (thyme), Origanum glandulosum (oregano), Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal), and Lavandula stoechas (lavender) were antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA). Carvacrol, thymol, pulegone, fenchone, and camphor were the strongest constituents. From: Bekka-Hadji, F., Bombarda, I., & Touati, A. (2016). Antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of five essential oils from Algerian medicinal plants (Lamiaceae). Journal of Essential Oil Research, 1-10.
- O. acutidens oil, carvacrol and thymol completely inhibited mycelial growth of multiple fungi. The oil, carvacrol and thymol showed a potent phytotoxic effect against the plants tested. Oregano also showed insecticidal activity against multiple pests tested. From: Kordali, S., Cakir, A., Ozer, H., Cakmakci, R., Kesdek, M., & Mete, E. (2008). Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene. Bioresource Technology, 99(18), 8788-8795.
- Thymol and carvacrol of Thymus glandulosus and Origanum compactum exhibited the strongest antifungal activity. From: Bouchra, C., Achouri, M., Hassani, L. I., & Hmamouchi, M. (2003). Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of seven Moroccan Labiatae against Botrytis cinerea Pers: Fr. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 89(1), 165-169. L
- Oregano, and constituents thymol and carvacrol were antifungal in vitro. From: Akgül, A., & Kivanc, M. (1988). Inhibitory effects of selected Turkish spices and oregano components on some foodborne fungi. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 6(3), 263-268.
- Palmarosa and cinnamon oils along with their phenolic compounds of thymol and carvacrol were the most fungitoxic against Cryptococcus neoformans common in late stage AIDS patients. Terpenoids, citral, geraniol, and citronellol also showed strong activity. From: Viollon, C., & Chaumont, J. P. (1994). Antifungal properties of essential oils and their main components uponCryptococcus neoformans. Mycopathologia, 128(3), 151-153.
- Carvacrol and thymol, as found in oregano, can be used to treat food spoilage pathogens. From: Lambert, R. J. W., Skandamis, P. N., Coote, P. J., & Nychas, G. J. (2001). A study of the minimum inhibitory concentration and mode of action of oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol. Journal of applied microbiology, 91(3), 453-462.
- Oregano and its thymol and carvacrol constituents were effective against methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MSS, MRS). From: Nostro, A., Blanco, A. R., Cannatelli, M. A., Enea, V., Flamini, G., Morelli, I., … & Alonzo, V. (2004). Susceptibility of methicillin-resistant staphylococci to oregano essential oil, carvacrol and thymol. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 230(2), 191-195.
- The antimicrobial activity of of thymol, carvacrol, limonene, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol were assessed. From: Di Pasqua, R., Hoskins, N., Betts, G., & Mauriello, G. (2006). Changes in membrane fatty acids composition of microbial cells induced by addiction of thymol, carvacrol, limonene, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol in the growing media. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(7), 2745-2749.
- Against oral bacteria, Australian tea tree, peppermint, and sage oil as well as the thymol and eugenol constituents were potent. From: Shapiro, S., Meier, A., & Guggenheim, B. (1994). The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and essential oil components towards oral bacteria. Oral microbiology and immunology, 9(4), 202-208.
- Camphor, menthol, thymol and oil of Eucalyptus citriodora were the most efﬁcacious components against the test toe fungus organisms. From: Ramsewak, R. S., Nair, M. G., Stommel, M., & Selanders, L. (2003). In vitro antagonistic activity of monoterpenes and their mixtures against toe nail fungus pathogens. Phytotherapy Research, 17(4), 376-379
- Oregano, spearmint, lavender, and sage essential oils and the constituents of carvacrol and thymol exhibited antifungal properties against the human pathogens Malassezia furfur, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichosporon beigelii. From: Adam, K., Sivropoulou, A., Kokkini, S., Lanaras, T., & Arsenakis, M. (1998). Antifungal activities of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum, Mentha spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, and Salvia fruticosa essential oils against human pathogenic fungi. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(5), 1739-1745.
- The essential oil of Lippia sidoides (verbena), and its major components thymol and carvacrol exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against oral bacteria in vitro. From: Botelho, M. A., Nogueira, N. A. P., Bastos, G. M., Fonseca, S. G. C., Lemos, T. L. G., Matos, F. J. A., … & Brito, G. A. C. (2007). Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides, carvacrol and thymol against oral pathogens. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 40(3), 349-356.
- A mouth rinse containing thymol with eucalyptol and benzoic acid (Listerine) showed oral antifungal activity, especially against Candida albicans. From: Abirami, C. P., & Venugopal, P. V. (2005). Antifungal activity of three mouth rinses–in vitro study. Indian journal of pathology & microbiology, 48(1), 43-44.
- Diphenyliodonium chloride (DIC) and thymol reduce the growth and survivability of Campylobacter species in vitro. From: Anderson, R. C., Krueger, N. A., Byrd, J. A., Harvey, R. B., Callaway, T. R., Edrington, T. S., & Nisbet, D. J. (2009). Effects of thymol and diphenyliodonium chloride against Campylobacter spp. during pure and mixed culture in vitro. Journal of applied microbiology, 107(4), 1258-1268.
- Antifungal activity of thymol as it affects gene expression were assessed. From: Bi, X., Guo, N., Jin, J., Liu, J., Feng, H., Shi, J., … & Yan, S. (2010). The global gene expression profile of the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by thymol. Journal of applied microbiology, 108(2), 712-722.
- Thymol reduced biofilm formation of Candida albicans. From: Braga, P. C., Culici, M., Alfieri, M., & Dal Sasso, M. (2008). Thymol inhibits Candida albicans biofilm formation and mature biofilm. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 31(5), 472-477.
- The study demonstrated the gram positive and gram negative antibacterial activities of thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. From: Cristani, M., D’Arrigo, M., Mandalari, G., Castelli, F., Sarpietro, M. G., Micieli, D., … & Trombetta, D. (2007). Interaction of four monoterpenes contained in essential oils with model membranes: implications for their antibacterial activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(15), 6300-6308.
- The in vitro study demonstrated antibiofilm activity of carvacrol, geraniol, and thymol against Candida. From: Dalleau, S., Cateau, E., Bergès, T., Berjeaud, J. M., & Imbert, C. (2008). In vitro activity of terpenes against Candida biofilms. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 31(6), 572-576.
- Limonene and thymol were strongest against Fusarium verticillioides in vitro. From: Dambolena, J. S., López, A. G., Cánepa, M. C., Theumer, M. G., Zygadlo, J. A., & Rubinstein, H. R. (2008). Inhibitory effect of cyclic terpenes (limonene, menthol, menthone and thymol) on Fusarium verticillioides MRC 826 growth and fumonisin B1 biosynthesis. Toxicon, 51(1), 37-44.
- Thyme essential oil and its component thymol showed activity against the fungus causing mucormycoses. From: de Lira Mota, K. S., de Oliveira Pereira, F., de Oliveira, W. A., Lima, I. O., & de Oliveira Lima, E. (2012). Antifungal activity of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil and its constituent phytochemicals against Rhizopus oryzae: interaction with ergosterol. Molecules, 17(12), 14418-14433.
- Citrus aurantium (bergamot), C. limon (lemon), Lavandula angustifolia (lavender), Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile), Mentha piperita (peppermint), M. spicata (spearmint), Ocimum basilicum (basil), Origanum vulgare(oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), and Salvia officinalis (sage) along with their constituents were tested against human pathogenic bacteria. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil and carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested constituents. Other significant constituents included: camphor, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol. From: Soković, M., Glamočlija, J., Marin, P. D., Brkić, D., & van Griensven, L. J. (2010). Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model. Molecules, 15(11), 7532-7546.
- This mega analysis reviewed studies of essential oils as antibacterials in food. Several effective constituents included carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, perillaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid. They have minimum inhibitory concentrations with some having synergism such as carvacrol and p-cymene, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol, and between EO components and mild preservation methods. From: Burt, S. (2004). Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review. International journal of food microbiology, 94(3), 223-253.
- Antibacterial abilities of 96 essential oils and their constituents were assessed. Marigold, ginger, jasmine, patchouli, gardenia, cedarwood, carrot seed, celery seed, mugwort, spikenard, and orange bitter oils along with the constituents of cinnamaldehyde, estragole, carvacrol, benzaldehyde, citral, thymol, eugenol, perillaldehyde, carvone R, and geranyl acetate were strongest against C. jejuni. Those most active against E. coli were oregano, thyme, cinnamon, palmarosa, bay leaf, clove bud, lemon grass, and allspice oils and the constituents: carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, eugenol, salicylaldehyde, geraniol, isoeugenol, citral, perillaldehyde, and estragole. Those most active against L. monocytogenes were gardenia, cedarwood, bay leaf, clove bud, oregano, cinnamon, allspice, thyme, and patchouli and the constituents of cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, citral, geraniol, perillaldehyde, carvone S, estragole, and salicylaldehyde. Those most active against S. enterica were thyme, oregano, cinnamon, clove bud, allspice, bay leaf, palmarosa, and marjoram oils as well as thymol, cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, eugenol, salicylaldehyde, geraniol, isoeugenol, terpineol, perillaldehyde, and estragole. From: Friedman, M., Henika, P. R., & Mandrell, R. E. (2002). Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. Journal of Food Protection®, 65(10), 1545-1560.
- Oregano’s antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus flavus, Botrytis cinerea, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were assessed, with thymol, carvacrol, and p-cymene making it a good antifungal agent. From: Cid-Pérez, T. S., Torres-Muñoz, J. V., Nevárez-Moorillón, G. V., Palou, E., & López-Malo, A. (2016). Chemical characterization and antifungal activity of Poliomintha longiflora Mexican oregano. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 28(2), 157-165.
- Salmonella was less an issue when a blend of carvacrol, thymol, eucalyptol, and lemon when added to drinking water of poultry farm animals. From: Alali, W. Q., Hofacre, C. L., Mathis, G. F., & Faltys, G. (2013). Effect of essential oil compound on shedding and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in broilers. Poultry science, 92(3), 836-841.
INSECTICIDAL / PESTICIDAL
- Essential oils can be efficient, and safer repellents for humans and the environment. In this mega analysis on insect repelling essential oils, Cymbopogon (lemongrass) spp., Ocimum (basil) spp. and Eucalyptus (eucalyptus) spp. are the most cited. Key constituents cited include α-pinene, limonene, citronellol, citronellal, camphor and thymol. From: Nerio, L. S., Olivero-Verbel, J., & Stashenko, E. (2010). Repellent activity of essential oils: a review. Bioresource technology, 101(1), 372-378.
- Strong fumigant antifungal activities was demonstrated by ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), and allspice (Pimenta dioica) oils and their thymol and eugenol constituents against the following three Aspergillus species: A. ochraceus, A. parasiticus, and A. niger. From: Kim, E., Oh, C. S., Koh, S. H., Kim, H. S., Kang, K. S., Park, P. S., … & Park, I. K. (2016). Antifungal activities after vaporization of ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi) and allspice (Pimenta dioica) essential oils and blends of their constituents against three Aspergillus species. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 28(3), 252-259.
- Thyme essential oil and the thymol and carvacrol constituents showed inhibition of Shigella sp. From: Bagamboula, C. F., Uyttendaele, M., & Debevere, J. (2004). Inhibitory effect of thyme and basil essential oils, carvacrol, thymol, estragol, linalool and p-cymene towards Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri. Food microbiology, 21(1), 33-42.
- Pulegone, thymol, eugenol, trans-anithole, rosemary oil, citronellal, and cymene showed high larvicidal, oviposition deterrent, and/or repellent activities against the denge fever mosquito. From: Waliwitiya, R., Kennedy, C. J., & Lowenberger, C. A. (2009). Larvicidal and oviposition‐altering activity of monoterpenoids, trans‐anithole and rosemary oil to the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Pest management science, 65(3), 241-248.
- Turkish oregano essential oil and its two components, carvacrol and thymol were insecticidal against the pine moth. From: Cetin, H., Erler, F., & Yanikoglu, A. (2007). A comparative evaluation of Origanum onites essential oil and its four major components as larvicides against the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams. Pest management science, 63(8), 830-833.
- Against the yellow fever mosquito, pulegone, thymol, eugenol, trans-anithole, rosemary oil and citronellal showed high larvicidal activity. Eugenol, citronellal, thymol, pulegone, rosemary oil and cymene showed oviposition deterrent and/or repellent activities. From: Waliwitiya, R., Kennedy, C. J., & Lowenberger, C. A. (2009). Larvicidal and oviposition‐altering activity of monoterpenoids, trans‐anithole and rosemary oil to the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Pest management science, 65(3), 241-248.
- Thymol, eugenol, pulegone, alpha terpineol and citronellal demonstrated insecticidal abilities related to insect enzyme activity and flight motor response. From: Waliwitiya, R. (2011). Plant-derived compounds: acute toxicity, synergism, and effects on insect enzyme activity and flight motor responses (Doctoral dissertation, Science: Biological Sciences Department).
- Essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus, Lavender officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris showed repellent activities against the mosquito: Culex pipiens pallens. Thyme was the strongest and constituents that were effective included alpha-terpinene, thymol, p-cymene, carvacrol, and linalool. From: Choi, W. S., Park, B. S., Ku, S. K., & Lee, S. E. (2002). Repellent activities of essential oils and monoterpenes against Culex pipiens pallens. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 18(4), 348-351.
- Thymol was potent against bovine ticks. From: da Silveira Novelino, A. M., Daemon, E., & Soares, G. L. G. (2007). Evaluation of the acaricide effect of thymol, menthol, salicylic acid, and methyl salicylate on Boophilus microplus (Canestrini 1887)(Acari: Ixodidae) larvae. Parasitology research, 101(3), 809.
- Thymol was effective against the tick: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. From: de Oliveira Monteiro, C. M., Daemon, E., Silva, A. M. R., Maturano, R., & Amaral, C. (2010). Acaricide and ovicide activities of thymol on engorged females and eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Parasitology research, 106(3), 615-619.
- Ocimum basilicum (basil) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) demonstrated antioxidant powers with the following constituents showing the strongest activity: eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, and 4-allylphenol. From: Lee, S. J., Umano, K., Shibamoto, T., & Lee, K. G. (2005). Identification of volatile components in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) and their antioxidant properties. Food Chemistry, 91(1), 131-137.
- 423 essential oils from 48 different botanical families were evaluated for their antioxidant activities as free radical scavenging agents. Results identified oils of the botanical families Lamiaceae and Myrtaceae as the most effective antioxidants, with thymol, eugenol, and carvacrol being the major constituents. From: Anthony, K. P., Deolu‐Sobogun, S. A., & Saleh, M. A. (2012). Comprehensive assessment of antioxidant activity of essential oils. Journal of food science, 77(8), C839-C843.
- Of 25 essential oils tested, thyme and clove showed the highest antioxidant activity; indicated were their thymol and eugenol components.. Cinnamon, basil, bergamot, eucalyptus, chamomile, bitter orange, and aloe vera were also effective. From: Wei, A., & Shibamoto, T. (2010). Antioxidant/lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and chemical compositions of selected essential oils. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 58(12), 7218-7225
- Thymus spicata and its constituents of thymol and carvacrol inhibited human lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage. From: Aydın, S., Başaran, A. A., & Başaran, N. (2005). Modulating effects of thyme and its major ingredients on oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 53(4), 1299-1305.
- There were antinociceptive and local anaesthetic effects of thymol and menthol in rats. From: Haeseler, G., Maue, D., Grosskreutz, J., Bufler, J., Nentwig, B., Piepenbrock, S., … & Leuwer, M. (2002). Voltage-dependent block of neuronal and skeletal muscle sodium channels by thymol and menthol. European journal of anaesthesiology, 19(08), 571-579.
- Essential oil constituents with an analgesic activity are reviewed. Included are p-cymene, carvacrol, linalool, eugenol, menthol, alpha-bisabolol, cinnamaldehyde, citronellal, citronellol, citronellyl acetate, alpha-phelandrene, alpha-terpeneol, vanillin, borneol, myrtenol, pulegone, citral, thymol, limonene, nerol, anethole, nerolidol, carvone, farnesol, and beta-caryphyllene. From: Lima, T., da Nóbrega, F., de Brito, A., & de Sousa, D. (2017). Analgesic-like activity of essential oil constituents: an update. International journal of molecular sciences, 18(12), 2392.
- Thymol has a spasmolytic effect on guinea pig stomach in vitro. From: Beer, A. M., Lukanov, J., & Sagorchev, P. (2007). Effect of Thymol on the spontaneous contractile activity of the smooth muscles. Phytomedicine, 14(1), 65-69.
- Thyme extract had an antispasmodic effect on rat ileum and trachea, with thymol being a significant constituent. From: Begrow, F., Engelbertz, J., Feistel, B., Lehnfeld, R., Bauer, K., & Verspohl, E. J. (2010). Impact of thymol in thyme extracts on their antispasmodic action and ciliary clearance. Planta medica, 76(04), 311-318.
- Essential oils of sage, rosemary, thyme, juniper, pine, turpentine, and eucalyptus and their constituents of thujone, eucalyptol, camphor, borneol, thymol, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, bornylacetate, and menthol inhibited bone resorption. From: Mühlbauer, R. C., Lozano, A., Palacio, S., Reinli, A., & Felix, R. (2003). Common herbs, essential oils, and monoterpenes potently modulate bone metabolism. Bone, 32(4), 372-380.
- In a double blind randomized clinical trial of 68 elderly, a a chlorhexidine-thymol varnish reduced the incidence of root caries. From: Baca, P., Clavero, J., Baca, A. P., González-Rodríguez, M. P., Bravo, M., & Valderrama, M. J. (2009). Effect of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish on root caries in a geriatric population: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Journal of dentistry, 37(9), 679-685.
- A randomized double blind longitudinal study of 102 elderly showed chlorhexidine, thymol, and fluoride varnishes reduced root caries. From: Brailsford, S. R., Fiske, J., Gilbert, S., Clark, D., & Beighton, D. (2002). The effects of the combination of chlorhexidine/thymol-and fluoride-containing varnishes on the severity of root caries lesions in frail institutionalised elderly people. Journal of dentistry, 30(7), 319-324.
- Thyme essential oil and its constituents of thymol and carvacrol were effective against food bacteria in vitro. From: Cosentino, S., Tuberoso, C. I. G., Pisano, B., Satta, M. L., Mascia, V., Arzedi, E., & Palmas, F. (1999). In‐vitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Sardinian thymus essential oils. Letters in applied microbiology, 29(2), 130-135.
- Essential oils of cilantro, coriander, cinnamon, oregano, rosemary, sage, clove, thyme, lemongrass, turmeric, mint, basil, and constituents of linalool, cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, terpinene, cymene, alpha/beta pinene, bornyl acetate, camphor, 1,8-cineole, alpha terpeneol, geraniol, perrilaldehyde, and eugenol have demonstrated food preserving potential. From: Burt, S. (2004). Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review. International journal of food microbiology, 94(3), 223-253.
- Total phenol content of essential oils was related to LDL antioxidant activity associated with cardiac heart disease. Phenols included: methylchavicol, anethol, p-cymen, apiole, cinnamic ether, carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, vanillin, cuminol, and eugenol. From: Teissedre, P. L., & Waterhouse, A. L. (2000). Inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins by phenolic substances in different essential oils varieties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(9), 3801-3805.
By: Kathy Sadowski