The listings of research below represents a compilation of scientific articles found on the topic, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. This compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use of any herb listed.
In a Cochrane review of 3 trials with 230 men with prostatic hyperplasia, saw palmetto was deemed to offer mild to moderate improvement in urinary symptoms and flow measures with less side effects than typical drugs. More research is warranted. From: Wilt, T., Ishani, A., & MacDonald, R. (2002). Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (3).
In a study with 55 women who had continuing urinary tract infections, a combination of Hibiscus extract, vegetable proteases and Commiphora myrrha extract reduce bacteria and infections. From: Cai, T., Tiscione, D., Cocci, A., Puglisi, M., Cito, G., Malossini, G., & Palmieri, A. (2018). Hibiscus extract, vegetable proteases and Commiphora myrrha are useful to prevent symptomatic UTI episode in patients affected by recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia, 90(3), 203-207.
The following herbs for the urinary systemre discussed: Solidago (goldenrod), Levisticumofficinale (lovage), Petroselinumcrispus (parsley), Urticadioica (stinging nettle), Uva-ursi (uva-uri), Juniperusspp (juniper), Vacciniummacrocarpon (cranberry), Rheumpalmatum (Chinese rhubarb), Lespedezacapitata (round-head lespedeza), Serenoarepens (saw palmetto), and Prunusafricana (pygeum). From: Yarnell, E. (2002). Botanical medicines for the urinary tract. World journal of urology, 20(5), 285-293.
In a study of 45 male volunteers with urinary disfunction related to an overactive bladder, taking a pumpkin seed oil extract for 12 weeks helped reduced symptoms. From: Nishimura, M., Ohkawara, T., Sato, H., Takeda, H., & Nishihira, J. (2014). Pumpkin seed oil extracted from Cucurbita maxima improves urinary disorder in human overactive bladder. Journal of traditional and complementary medicine, 4(1), 72-74.
In patients with lupus nephritis, 30 g of flaxseed a day was well tolerated and beneficial to renal function and inflammatory and atherogenic mechanisms associated with the disease. From: Clark, W. F., Parbtani, A., Huff, M. W., Spanner, E., de Salis, H., Chin-Yee, I., … & Holub, B. J. (1995). Flaxseed: a potential treatment for lupus nephritis. Kidney international, 48(2), 475-480.
In patients with lupus nephritis, flaxseed was renoprotective. From: Clark, W. F., Kortas, C., Heidenheim, A. P., Garland, J., Spanner, E., & Parbtani, A. (2001). Flaxseed in lupus nephritis: a two-year nonplacebo-controlled crossover study. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 20(2), 143-1.
Urva Ursa is included as a natural remedy for urinary tract infections. From: Head, K. A. (2008). Natural approaches to prevention and treatment of infections of the lower urinary tract. Alternative Medicine Review, 13(3), 227-245.
Multiple human studies have demonstrated stinging nettle and saw palmetto extracts may help with prostate hyperplasia. From: Koch, E. (2001). Extracts from fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata) and roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica): viable alternatives in the medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated lower urinary tracts symptoms. Planta Medica, 67(06), 489-500. Dandelion extract reduced an effect of a fatty liver in mice. From: Davaatseren, M., Hur, H. J., Yang, H. J., Hwang, J. T., Park, J. H., Kim, H. J., … & Sung, M. J. (2013). Taraxacum official (dandelion) leaf extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver. Food and chemical toxicology, 58, 30-36.
Dandelion root extract showed protective action against alcohol-induced toxicity in the liver in vitro and in vivo. From: You, Y., Yoo, S., Yoon, H. G., Park, J., Lee, Y. H., Kim, S., … & Jun, W. (2010). In vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) root against alcohol-induced oxidative stress. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(6), 1632-1637.
In a review of 25 studies including 1804 patients with diabetic nephropathy, injections of astragalus had a renal protective effective. From: Li, M., Wang, W., Xue, J., Gu, Y., & Lin, S. (2011). Meta-analysis of the clinical value of Astragalus membranaceus in diabetic nephropathy. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 133(2), 412-419.
The use of Chinese herbs including astragalus, angelica, and rhubarb in kidney disease was discussed. From: Li, X., & Wang, H. (2005). Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of chronic kidney disease. Advances in chronic kidney disease, 12(3), 276-281.
Pumpkin seed extract reduced the bladder pressure, increase the bladder compliance, and reduced the urethral pressure in rabbits. From: Xu, Z., Jin-zhi, O., Yong-shang, Z., Balla, T., Xi-cai, Z., & Si-wei, Z. (1994). Effect of the extracts of pumpkin seeds on the urodynamics of rabbits: an experimental study. Journal of Tongji Medical University, 14(4), 235.
Glabridin, a pyranoisoflavan constituents from licorice reduced protein excretion found in the urine. From: Fukai, T., Satoh, K., Nomura, T., & Sakagami, H. (2003). Preliminary evaluation of antinephritis and radical scavenging activities of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra. Fitoterapia, 74(7), 624-629.
P. anisum was administered orally to young rats intoxicated by lead acetate and showed it may have a nephroprotective potential against harmful effect induced by lead toxicity on kidneys. From: Amina, B. (2016). Nephroprotective effect of Pimpinella anisum L. aqueous extract against lead toxicity: In vivo study. International Journal of Green Pharmacy (IJGP), 10(2).
Carotol being the main constituent of all tested essential oils showed moderate cytotoxicity on monkey kidney and human pharynx squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. From: Sieniawska, E., Świątek, Ł., Rajtar, B., Kozioł, E., Polz-Dacewicz, M., & Skalicka-Woźniak, K. (2016). Carrot seed essential oil—Source of carotol and cytotoxicity study. Industrial Crops and Products, 92, 109-115.
Daucus carota extract showed anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic potential without showing a negative affect on liver, kidney and pancreas function. From: Wehbe, K., Mroueh, M., & Daher, C. F. (2009). The potential role of Daucus carota aqueous and methanolic extracts on inflammation and gastric ulcers in rats. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, 6(1).
Aloe had an antioxidant effect in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. From: Rajasekaran, S., Sivagnanam, K., & Subramanian, S. (2005). Antioxidant effect of Aloe vera gel extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Pharmacol Rep, 57(1), 90-6.
Rhubarb improved renal function in rats with renal failure. From: YOKOZAWA, T., FUJIOKA, K., OURA, H., NONAKA, G. I., & NISHIOKA, I. (1993). Effects of rhubarb tannins on renal function in rats with renal failure. The Japanese Journal of Nephrology, 35(1), 13-18.
Sambucus nigra and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Orthosiphon stamineus and Hieracium pilosella increased urine flow in rats. From: Beaux, D., Fleurentin, J., & Mortier, F. (1999). Effect of extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus benth, Hieracium pilosella L., Sambucus nigra L. and Arctostaphylos uva‐ursi (L.) spreng. in rats. Phytotherapy Research, 13(3), 222-225.
This mega-analysis discussed the research on the therapeutic actions of bergamot.Modern medicine utilizes the plant as an antiseptic and antibacterial. Human studies have demonstrated the aroma to be anxiolytic and help with insomnia. Italian folk remedies rely on the plant to reduce fever, and as an anti-parasite, antiseptic, antimicrobial, antifungal, and antibacterial. It has been used by Italian people to treat skin, oral, respiratory, urinary, and vaginal infections. From: Navarra, M., Mannucci, C., Delbò, M., & Calapai, G. (2015). Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application. Frontiers in pharmacology, 6, 36.