The listings of research below represent a compilation of scientific articles found on the topic, with a very brief overview description of each article/study. This compilation of research articles does not necessarily imply that there are adequate results to demonstrate safe and/or effective human use of any herb listed.
In a review of research, including 12 trials with 786 patients, showed that cinnamon intake significantly reduced body weight. From: Mousavi, S. M., Rahmani, J., Kord-Varkaneh, H., Sheikhi, A., Larijani, B., & Esmaillzadeh, A. (2019). Cinnamon supplementation positively affects obesity: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clinical Nutrition.
This double blind study of 52 overweight chronically stressed people demonstrated ashwagandha root over 8 weeks had no adverse side effects and reduced stress and food cravings as well as cortisol levels and body weight. From: Choudhary, D., Bhattacharyya, S., & Joshi, K. (2017). Body weight management in adults under chronic stress through treatment with Ashwagandha root extract: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of evidence-based complementary & alternative medicine, 22(1), 96-106.
In obese prediabetes patients, aloe reduced body weight, BFM, and insulin resistance. From: Choi, H. C., Kim, S. J., Son, K. Y., Oh, B. J., & Cho, B. L. (2013). Metabolic effects of aloe vera gel complex in obese prediabetes and early non-treated diabetic patients: Randomized controlled trial. Nutrition, 29(9), 1110-1114.
A double blind randomized controlled study with 84 overweight women showed serum lipid levels reduce with the use of a cinnamon supplement. From: Borzoei, A., Rafraf, M., Niromanesh, S., Farzadi, L., Narimani, F., & Doostan, F. (2018). Effects of cinnamon supplementation on antioxidant status and serum lipids in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Journal of traditional and complementary medicine, 8(1), 128-133.
In a study of 30 young overweight participants, 250 mg twice a day for 8 weeks of a basil supplement resulted in improved insulin, cholesterol, and body weight levels. From: Satapathy, S., Das, N., Bandyopadhyay, D., Mahapatra, S. C., Sahu, D. S., & Meda, M. (2017). Effect of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) supplementation on metabolic parameters and liver enzymes in young overweight and obese subjects. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 32(3), 357-363.
A dose of 250 mg a day of forskolin, as found in the coleus plant, taken for 12 weeks reduced obesity measurements in overweight men. From: Godard, M. P., Johnson, B. A., & Richmond, S. R. (2005). Body composition and hormonal adaptations associated with forskolin consumption in overweight and obese men. Obesity, 13(8), 1335-1343.
A human study of 43 adults showed a diet containing oats consumed over 6 wk resulted in greater improvements in systolic blood pressure and lipid profile. From: Saltzman, E., Das, S. K., Lichtenstein, A. H., Dallal, G. E., Corrales, A., Schaefer, E. J., … & Roberts, S. B. (2001). An oat-containing hypocaloric diet reduces systolic blood pressure and improves lipid profile beyond effects of weight loss in men and women. The Journal of nutrition, 131(5), 1465-1470.
Flaxseed intake decreased glucose and insulin as well as insulin sensitivity a in overweight patients. From: Hutchins, A. M., Brown, B. D., Cunnane, S. C., Domitrovich, S. G., Adams, E. R., & Bobowiec, C. E. (2013). Daily flaxseed consumption improves glycemic control in obese men and women with pre-diabetes: a randomized study. Nutrition research, 33(5), 367-375.
In a 12 week, randomized study with 80 obese women, 2g of ginger powder daily resulted in a small reduction in anthropometric measurement and appetite. From: Ebrahimzadeh Attari, V., Asghari Jafarabadi, M., Zemestani, M., & Ostadrahimi, A. (2015). Effect of Zingiber officinale supplementation on obesity management with respect to the uncoupling protein 1‐3826A> G and ß3‐adrenergic receptor Trp64Arg polymorphism. Phytotherapy Research, 29(7), 1032-1039.
In this triple-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial with 140 patients with type II diabetes, the group who took 500 mg of cinnamon bark powder taken twice daily for 3 months reduced body fat, insulin resistance, and cholesterol levels. From: Zare, R., Nadjarzadeh, A., Zarshenas, M. M., Shams, M., & Heydari, M. (2019). Efficacy of cinnamon in patients with type II diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Clinical Nutrition, 38(2), 549-556.
In a study with 80 overweight women, taking 2g of ginger powder a day for 12 weeks slightly reduced weight and metabolic features. From: Attari, V. E., Ostadrahimi, A., Jafarabadi, M. A., Mehralizadeh, S., & Mahluji, S. (2016). Changes of serum adipocytokines and body weight following Zingiber officinale supplementation in obese women: a RCT. European journal of nutrition, 55(6), 2129-2136.
In this systematic review of over 100 randomized controlled human trials, grapefruit consumption significantly reduced systolic blood pressure, but could not definitively demonstrate weight loss. More human studies are needed. From: Onakpoya, I., O’Sullivan, J., Heneghan, C., & Thompson, M. (2017). The effect of grapefruits (Citrus paradisi) on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 57(3), 602-612.
In a review of 27 articles (6 in vitro, 17 animal, and 4 human studies, the anti-obesity effects of ginger were discussed. From: Ebrahimzadeh Attari, V., Malek Mahdavi, A., Javadivala, Z., Mahluji, S., Zununi Vahed, S., & Ostadrahimi, A. (2018). A systematic review of the anti‐obesity and weight lowering effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its mechanisms of action. Phytotherapy research, 32(4), 577-585.
A randomized placebo controlled study of 91 obese patients showed twelve week intake of grapefruit juice reduced glucose insulin levels and reduced weight. From: Fujioka, K., Greenway, F., Sheard, J., & Ying, Y. (2006). The effects of grapefruit on weight and insulin resistance: relationship to the metabolic syndrome. Journal of medicinal food, 9(1), 49-54.
In a review of human studies, chia seeds were shown to help reduce LDL cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, and diastolic blood pressure. However, further high quality human studies are needed. From: Teoh, S. L., Lai, N. M., Vanichkulpitak, P., Vuksan, V., Ho, H., & Chaiyakunapruk, N. (2018). Clinical evidence on dietary supplementation with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition reviews, 76(4), 219-242.
In a twelve week randomized double blind trial of overweight men, intake of a polyphenol citrus extract had a slimming effect with improved muscle mass metabolism. From: Cases, J., Romain, C., Dallas, C., Gerbi, A., & Rouanet, J. M. (2015). A 12-week randomized double-blind parallel pilot trial of Sinetrol XPur on body weight, abdominal fat, waist circumference, and muscle metabolism in overweight men. International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 66(4), 471-477.
In this small study, infertile obese women took an herbal blend of Trachyspermum ammi (ajowan), Pimpinella anisum (anise), Apium graveolens (fennel), and Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek). The herb was taken for 3 months. Results demonstrated weight loss, menstrual regulation, lipid profiles, insulin levels; 2 of 30 women conceived shortly after the study. From: Khan, S., Shameem, I., Sahibole, S., & Siddiqui, A. (2017). Efficacy of Unani formulation in infertility among obese women: A clinical study. International Journal of Medical and Health Research, 3(4), 125-33.
In a small study, 22 obese female patients were randomized to placebo or a mangosteen extract over 26 weeks. Results showed improved insulin sensitivity with no side effects in the mangosteen group. From: Watanabe, M., Gangitano, E., Francomano, D., Addessi, E., Toscano, R., Costantini, D., … & Gnessi, L. (2018). Mangosteen Extract Shows a Potent Insulin Sensitizing Effect in Obese Female Patients: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Pilot Study. Nutrients, 10(5), 586.
Citrus aurantium (bergamot) increased resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure, with modest weight loss in humans. From: Stohs, S. J., Preuss, H. G., & Shara, M. (2012). A review of the human clinical studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine. Int J Med Sci, 9(7), 527-538.
In a randomized parallel study of 112 overweight and hypertensive adults, olive leaf extract taken along with increased exercise improved blood pressure levels. From: Saibandith, B., Tolfrey, K., Spencer, J., Rowland, I., & Commane, D. (2016). The synergistic anti-hypertensive effects of consuming olive leaf extract alongside increasing physical activity. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 75(OCE3).
In a small study with 22 overweight participants, taking a noni supplement for 12 weeks, along with exercise significantly improved body composition and demonstrated weight loss. From: Palu, A. K., West, B. J., & Jensen, J. (2011). Noni-based nutritional supplementation and exercise interventions influence body composition. North American journal of medical sciences, 3(12), 552.
A review of studies on the anti-diabetic affect of vinegar intake was summarized. More, larger scale human studies are warranted. From: Petsiou, E. I., Mitrou, P. I., Raptis, S. A., & Dimitriadis, G. D. (2014). Effect and mechanisms of action of vinegar on glucose metabolism, lipid profile, and body weight. Nutrition reviews, 72(10), 651-661.
In a small study with 10 overweight men, drinking a hot ginger tea with 2g of ginger with breakfast reduced hunger compared to the control group. From: Mansour, M. S., Ni, Y. M., Roberts, A. L., Kelleman, M., RoyChoudhury, A., & St-Onge, M. P. (2012). Ginger consumption enhances the thermic effect of food and promotes feelings of satiety without affecting metabolic and hormonal parameters in overweight men: a pilot study. Metabolism, 61(10), 1347-1352.
An herbal mixture containing ginger root, black pepper fruit, java long pepper fruit, Camellia sinensis tea leaves, and coffee beans was applied as hot compresses in 21 overweight female volunteers. The treatment was applied twice a week for 11 weeks. It was a double-blind randomized placebo controlled study where one of the participants thighs was treated with an herb and the other was treated with a placebo. From: Ngamdokmai, N., Waranuch, N., Chootip, K., Jampachaisri, K., Scholfield, C. N., & Ingkaninan, K. (2018). Cellulite Reduction by Modified Thai Herbal Compresses; A Randomized Double-Blind Trial. Journal of evidence-based integrative medicine, 23, 2515690X18794158.
In this randomized controlled clinical trial with 37 patients who had metabolic syndrome, the treatment group received 2g of ginger powder a day for 12 weeks. Cholesterol, blood sugar, weight, blood pressure, and overall energy levels were significantly improved in the treatment group. From: Rahimlou, M., Yari, Z., Rayyani, E., Keshavarz, S. A., Hosseini, S., Morshedzadeh, N., & Hekmatdoost, A. (2019). Effects of ginger supplementation on anthropometric, glycemic and metabolic parameters in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 1-7.
Ashwagandha extracts taken for 10 days reduced elevated plasma glucose, insulin, and cortisol levels, and alterations in adrenal gland and spleen weights of diabetic animals. From: K Thakur, A., Dey, A., S Chatterjee, S., & Kumar, V. (2015). Reverse Ayurvedic pharmacology of Ashwagandha as an adaptogenic anti-diabetic plant: a pilot study. Current Traditional Medicine, 1(1), 51-61.
Rosemary leaf extract limited weight gain and liver steatosis in mice. From: Harach, T., Aprikian, O., Monnard, I., Moulin, J., Membrez, M., Béolor, J. C., … & Darimont, C. (2010). Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaf extract limits weight gain and liver steatosis in mice fed a high-fat diet. Planta medica, 76(06), 566-571.
Coleus forskohlii extracts reduced body weight, food intake, and fat accumulation in ovariectomized rats and may be useful in treating obesity. From: Han, L. K., Morimoto, C., Yu, R. H., & Okuda, H. (2005). Effects of Coleus forskohlii on fat storage in ovariectomized rats. Yakugaku zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 125(5), 449-453.
A polysaccharide found in Angelica sinensis showed strong antitumor activity in mice. From: Choy, Y. M., Leung, K. N., Cho, C. S., Wong, C. K., & Pang, P. K. (1994). Immunopharmacological studies of low molecular weight polysaccharide from Angelica sinensis. The American journal of Chinese medicine, 22(2), 137.
Exposure to the scent of grapefruit oil, and its component limonene, affected the autonomic nerves in rats, acting as a stimulant that enhanced lipolysis through a histaminergic response, and reduces appetite and body weight. From: Shen, J., Niijima, A., Tanida, M., Horii, Y., Maeda, K., & Nagai, K. (2005). Olfactory stimulation with scent of grapefruit oil affects autonomic nerves, lipolysis and appetite in rats. Neuroscience letters, 380(3), 289-294.
Citrus aurantium flavonoids suppressed adipogenesis and may aid in weight loss. From: Kim, G. S., Park, H. J., Woo, J. H., Kim, M. K., Koh, P. O., Min, W., … & Cho, J. H. (2012). Citrus aurantium flavonoids inhibit adipogenesis through the Akt signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 cells. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 12(1), 1.
Citrus aurantium (bergamot) and Rhodiola rosea (golden root) have actions on central monoamine pathways for the treatment of obesity. From: Verpeut, J. L., Walters, A. L., & Bello, N. T. (2013). Citrus aurantium and Rhodiola rosea in combination reduce visceral white adipose tissue and increase hypothalamic norepinephrine in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Nutrition research, 33(6), 503-512.
In mice taking a supplement of pine bark extract decreased body weight, percentage body fat, systolic blood pressure and plasma viscosity, and improved basal and hyperaemic blood ﬂow. From: Shand, B., Strey, C., Scott, R., Morrison, Z., & Gieseg, S. (2003). Pilot study on the clinical effects of dietary supplementation with Enzogenol®, a flavonoid extract of pine bark and vitamin C. Phytotherapy Research, 17(5), 490-494.
Yarrow, when administered to rats at 56 times the human dose, was associated with reduced fetal weight and increased placental weight, thus might be contraindicated during pregnancy. From: Boswell‐Ruys, C. L., Ritchie, H. E., & Brown‐Woodman, P. D. (2003). Preliminary screening study of reproductive outcomes after exposure to yarrow in the pregnant rat. Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology, 68(5), 416-420.
Cinnamic acid showed anti-obesity and antihypertensive activity in vivo. From: Mnafgui, K., Derbali, A., Sayadi, S., Gharsallah, N., Elfeki, A., & Allouche, N. (2015). Anti-obesity and cardioprotective effects of cinnamic acid in high fat diet-induced obese rats. Journal of food science and technology, 52(7), 4369-4377.
Rosemary and thyme extracts were weight controlling, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic in vivo. From: Hegazy, A. M., Abdel-Azeem, A. S., Zeidan, H. M., Ibrahim, K. S., & Sayed, E. E. (2018). Hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective activities of rosemary and thyme in gentamicin-treated rats. Human & experimental toxicology, 37(4), 420-430.
In a 12 week study with 30 overweight participants, the group that drank coffee enhanced with 200 mg of green coffee bean extract lost more weight than the group who drank coffee with no green coffee bean extract. From: Thom, E. (2007). The effect of chlorogenic acid enriched coffee on glucose absorption in healthy volunteers and its effect on body mass when used long-term in overweight and obese people. Journal of International Medical Research, 35(6), 900-908.
In a study of 50 overweight people, for two months. The coffee bean extract group lost 5 pounds more than the placebo group. From: Dellalibera, O., Lemaire, B., & Lafay, S. (2006). Svetol, green coffee extract, induces weight loss and increases the lean to fat mass ratio in volunteers with overweight problem. Phytotherapie, 4(4), 194-197.
16 overweight adults took a green coffee bean extract for six weeks. Results showed significant reductions in body weight, body mass, and slightly reduced heart rate with no other change in diet. From: Vinson, J. A., Burnham, B. R., & Nagendran, M. V. (2012). Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects. Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity: targets and therapy, 5, 21.
In two small double blind studies, a green coffee bean extract taken over 12 weeks effected the absorption and utilization of glucose from the diet. This resulted in a loss of body mass and body fat. From: Kozuma, K., Tsuchiya, S., Kohori, J., Hase, T., & Tokimitsu, I. (2005). Antihypertensive effect of green coffee bean extract on mildly hypertensive subjects. Hypertension research, 28(9), 711.
In a study of 40 overweight adults, a supplement with berberine, chlorogenic acid and tocotrienols, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol, and fasting insulin levels were reduced in the group when taking the supplement over 8 weeks. From: Cicero, A. F., Rosticci, M., Parini, A., Morbini, M., Urso, R., Grandi, E., & Borghi, C. (2015). Short-term effects of a combined nutraceutical of insulin-sensitivity, lipid level and indexes of liver steatosis: a double-blind, randomized, cross-over clinical trial. Nutrition journal, 14(1), 30.
Drinking a supplement made with green coffee beans over eight weeks reduced blood pressure, body fat, blood sugar and triglyceride levels in 49 participants. From: Sarriá, B., Martínez-López, S., Sierra-Cinos, J. L., García-Diz, L., Mateos, R., & Bravo-Clemente, L. (2018). Regularly consuming a green/roasted coffee blend reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome. European journal of nutrition, 57(1), 269-278.
In a small study of 57 subjects, a chewing gum containing Garciniacambogia, green coffee extract and l-carnitine, reduced calorie intake of snacks compared to both the placebo chewing gum and no chewing gum groups. From: Bobillo, C., Finlayson, G., Martínez, A., Fischman, D., Beneitez, A., Ferrero, A. J., … & Mayer, M. A. (2018). Short-term effects of a green coffee extract-, Garciniacambogia-and l-carnitine-containing chewing gum on snack intake and appetite regulation. European journal of nutrition, 57(2), 607-615.
In this review of research on chlorogenic acid, its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and blood sugar and lipid regulating actions are itemized. Further, it is mentioned as a possible supplement for reducing cardiovascular disease, obesity, and cancer. Tajik, N., Tajik, M., Mack, I., & Enck, P. (2017). The potential effects of chlorogenic acid, the main phenolic components in coffee, on health: a comprehensive review of the literature. European journal of nutrition, 56(7), 2215-2244.
In a review of research grapefruit and its component, naringin has shown antioxidant, lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, cardiac protective, and anti-obesity effects. From: Razavi, B. M., & Hosseinzadeh, H. (2019). A Review of the Effects of Citrus paradisi (Grapefruit) and Its Flavonoids, Naringin, and Naringenin in Metabolic Syndrome. In Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Diabetes (pp. 515-543). Academic Press.
Olfactory stimulation of the aromas of grapefruit and lemon increased lipolysis and caused a suppression in body weight gain in rats. From: Niijima, A., & Nagai, K. (2003). Effect of olfactory stimulation with flavor of grapefruit oil and lemon oil on the activity of sympathetic branch in the white adipose tissue of the epididymis. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 228(10), 1190-1192.
In rodents, grapefruit aroma and its limonene constituent affected brain activity to suppress appetite while lavender and its linalool constituent had the opposite effect. From: Nagai, K., Niijima, A., Horii, Y., Shen, J., & Tanida, M. (2014). Olfactory stimulatory with grapefruit and lavender oils change autonomic nerve activity and physiological function. Autonomic Neuroscience, 185, 29-35.
In a thorough review of research, including in vitro, in vivo, and 10 human studies, the author concluded ginger and its constituents have a beneficial effect against obesity and metabolic syndrome disorders like diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and high blood pressure. From: Wang, J., Ke, W., Bao, R., Hu, X., & Chen, F. (2017). Beneficial effects of ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity and metabolic syndrome: a review. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1398(1), 83-98.
Yarrow extracts taken orally reduced appetite in mice. From: Nematy, M., Mazidi, M., Jafari, A., Baghban, S., Rakhshandeh, H., Norouzy, A., … & Mohammadpour, A. H. (2017). The effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Achillea millefolium on appetite hormone in rats. Avicenna journal of phytomedicine, 7(1), 10.
Cholesterol, triglyceride, liver fat, and obesity was improved in rats given lime essential oil for eight weeks. From: Lin, L. Y., Chuang, C. H., Chen, H. C., & Yang, K. M. (2019). Lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle) Essential Oils: Volatile Compounds, Antioxidant Capacity, and Hypolipidemic Effect. Foods, 8(9), 398.